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_^__^_^____ ^ JAM JA RY, 1960 

"'Dearly beloved, 1 beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain 
from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul." 1 Peter 2: 1 1 

"Quite suddenly^t may be at tne turning or a iaiie. 
Where I stand to watch a skylark soar from out the 

sx-^elling grain. 
That the trump of God shall thrill me, with its call 

so loud and clear. 
And I*m called away to meet him, whom of all I hold 

most dear. 

Quite suddenly— it may be in His house I bend my knee, 
lAttien the Kingly Voice, long-hoped-for, comes at last 

to summon me^ 
And the fellowship of earth-life that has seemed so 

passing sweet, 
ProTes nothing but the shadow of our meeting round 

his feet. 

Quite suddenly- it may be as I tread the busy street, 
Strong to endm^e lifers stress and strain, its every 

call to meet. 
That through the roar of traffic, a truiapet, silvery 

Shall stir my startled senses and proclaim, his 

coming near. 

Quite suddenly— it may be as I lie in dreamless sleep, 
God's gift to many a sorrowing heart, with no more 

tears to weep, 
That a call shall break my slmber and a Voice 
soiHid in my ear,; 
• Rise. up, 1^ love, and come awayi Behold J the Bride- 
groom's here! 
— Selected by J.G. Hootman, Modesto, Calif. 


THE PILGRIM is a religious magazine published monthly by Daniel F. Wolf in the 
interests of the members of The Old Brethren Church. Subscription rote: $1.50 per year. 
Sample copies sent free on request. Address: THE PILGRIM, Rt. 3, Box 1378, Modesto, Calif. 

IT IS THE lAST Tllffi 

'^Little children it is the last time; and as ye 
have heard that anti-christ shall come, even now 
are there many anti-christs; whereby we know it 
is the last time." I John 2:18. 

We are told in the Bible that One day is with the 
Lord as a thousand years _, and a thousand years as one 
day. And also in the Psalms it is said. For a thous- 
and years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is 

NoWj with the advent of satelites and space explor- 
ation, wherein man -made objects are hurled into space- 
orbits around the earth, and others projected hundreds 
of thousands of miles out from the earth onto, or in 
the region of^ the moonj though no less real than it 
has always been, yet it now seems more comprehensible 
to us that with God time is not measured in any manner 
understandable to U6, Therefore time as we know it 
pertains only to our world and us while we are here. 

But while it is true that with God there is neither 
night nor day nor yeaxs, yet time is, all important to 
us because it is a corelation of events that must take 
place within our being, which has not yet reached the 
perfection or changeless state that will characterize 
it in the eternities. 

¥e have no reason to doubt that the rotation of the 
earth upon its a:>:is with relation to the sun, is the 
physical cause, under the decree of God, for our day 
and night. And that our seasons and years are determ- 
ined by the time required for the earth to complete 
it orbit around the sun. If this be true^ then it is 
obvious that far out into space, away from this revolv- 
ing planet, in the habitations where God and the heaven- 
ly beings dwell, there would be no such measiirements 
of 'time as we now know. 


The Bible tells us distinctly how time began — "And 
the evening and the morning were the first day." Gen. 
1:5» And when it has accomplishe the p\arpose for 
which God. created it^ we are told in Revelation (10th 
chapter) that it will end when a mighty angel ^ clo th- 
in terrible majesty^ shall descend from heaven in a 
cloudy and with one foot on the sea and the other on 
the earthy with up-lifted hand, shall swear by Him 
that live th for ever and ever, that time shall be no 

IT IS THE LAST TIME. We believe this statement has 
a greater meaning than merely days and years, though 
of necessity it must be within their measure. It 
clearly has reference to a certain era and^Aonditions 
of God's dealings with his people and the /inhabitants 
regarding their redemption arid salvation. It 
that there was another time or times prior to this when 
man's relationship and conditions of acceptance with 
God may not have been the same as it is now. But what- 
ever the nature or duration of other times before this, 
this is the last time or era before the EMD. We need 
not, and cannot expect another after this. 

There is much in the Bible about certain epochs or 
divisions of time. In the book of Daniel we read of. 
"time, times, and dividing of time (7:2$), And in 
chapter 9:2? we are told of a special period of seventy 
weeks (xinder stood to mean 70 weeks of years) alio ted v- 
to Daniel's people and their city, to accomplish certain 
purposes, which was to begin with the rebuilding of 
Jerusalem, after the return from the Captivity, and 
culminate in the coming of the Messiah and his death 
or i.^'cutting off." Chapter 8 tells of a prophetic 
twenty three hundres days, of which there has, been 
Biuch.studjr and speculation. And chapter 12 tells of 
a "tirae of trouble." and "deliverance" and of the time 
when the dead will be raised— some of which must cert- 
ainly be included in this "last time" of which the 
apostle John warns. 

A very energetic school of prophetic interpretation 
in cur time, knovm as the dispensationalists, divide 
all of time into seven "dispensations," but this must 

k:- ...^-. .. - ~--- ... THE : PILGRIM:: 

be arbxtrary because within the school itself they do 
not agree as to the beginning and ending of the several 

in our western world^ at least, one great general 
division is recognized by all, which is the time before 
Christ'^ s Birth, B.C», and the time since that historic 
event, \The year of our Lord, A.D. 

In- the first chapter of Matthew we find a very sig- 
nificant division of ' time, by generations, into three ' 
eras of fourteen generations each, from Abraliam to- 
D^idj from; David to the carrying away into Babylon, 
and from the 'Carrying away into Babylon until Christ. . 
These , imp or tknt epochs are within the context of re- 
dernptxon aiid the Mew Creation, of which Jesus Christ 
is the head. Col* I:l5-19# These three eras embrace 
the'ri^e of the Hebrew nation; the rise of the Davidic 
kingdom, and fall of its carnal or earthly dynasty, and 
the' establishment of Christ as the promised aon of 
David and rightful heir to his everlasting throne and 

It ^ has now been nearly nineteen hixndred yeai*s since 
the apostle said, "It is the last timej" evidently 
having reference to this whole era of grace and its 
related events, wherein sins are forgiven and God again 
dwells in the -hearts ,of men by the Holy Ghost which is 
given unto us| and culminating in the personal return 
of our Lord and his reign upon the earthy ' -' 

■'^' It "is the last time because it is the time of ful- 
fillment of that which former ages pointed to and typi- 
fied.. And so in the beginning of Jesus* mi.nistry he 
began to preach and say, "THE Tli-lS IS FULFILLED, and 
the kin'^dom of heaven is at hand: repent ye, and believe 
the gospel." Mk. 1^ The apostle Peter, speaking of our 
redemption by the "precious blood of Christ, as of a 
Lamb without blemish and without spot: l/fiio verily was 
foreordained before the foundaton of the^ world, but was 
manifest in THESE LAST TIMES for you," I Peter 1:20. 
And again in Acts 3:2U he says. Yea, 'all the prophets 
from Samuel and those that folloxf after, as many as have 
spoken, have likewise foretold of these days." In Gal. 
li:U,5 it is said, ^"But when the fulness of time was 


come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made 
under the law. To redeem them that were imder the law, 
that we might receive the adoption of sons." "But now 
once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put 
away sin by the sacrifice of himself." Heb. 9: 26. 

If the time when Jesus was here was in the "end of 
the world," and John's time was the "last time," surely 
we must be very near the END of the last time* 

Jesus warned that the end of this age would be as 
it was in the days of Noah before the flood, when un- 
godliness and immorality were rampant, and violenca 
filled the earth, and all the imagination of the heart 
of man yias only evil continually. "LikevriLse as it was 
in. the days of Sodom, so also shall it be in the days 
of' the coming of the Son of man. " 

It may be that before the Lord comes there vjill be' 
a complete break -dovm in the morals of society as it 
appears to have been in Sodom. And the righteous who 
remain here till that time may be longing and praying 
for the Lord to come and deliver them out of it. Every 
one^who is at all informed, knows that just beneath the 
siirface of a society that still pretends to be good, 
the elements of corruption are far advanced, as'eviden- 
sed by the open disregard of God's law regarding the 
sanctity of marriage, and other departures from the 
true faith of Jesus Christ* 

The apostle Patd forewarned of such conditions when 
he said, "This know also, that in the last days peri]-* 
ous times shall come. For men shall be lovers of their 
own selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, dis- 
obedient to parents, imtharikful, unlioly, without natural 
affection, truce-breakers, false accusers, incontinent, 
fierce, despisers of those that are good, traiters, 
heady, highridnded, lovers of pleasure more than lovers 
of Godj Having the form of godliness, but denying the 
pox'^rer thereof*" II Tim, 3:l-5e 

Not only are these crimes daily news to us in this 
time, but they are propagated by every modern means of 
communication, and become daily entertainment for little 
children and youth right in the home where they should 
be taught reverence for the Word of God andHislaws. 




'•;■,••■' NO. 1 

' J. I. Cover 

. "Know ye not^ that so many of us as were baptized 
into Chrast, were, baptised into death? Therefore xfe are 
buried with hira by baptism into deaths tliat like as 
Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the 
Father^ §veti so we also should vjalk in newness of life; 
For if ye have been planted together in the likeness of 
his death we shall be also in the likeness of his resur- 
rection.^* Rom. 6:3-5f "Therefore if any man be in 
Christ he is a new creature: old things ai^e passed 
away^ , and behold all things are become new.'* II Cor.. 
5:17. These wonderful xvt^rds can be an introduction of 
fact of the wonderful transforming power of God to 
quicken and riase to life and virtuous artivity as we 
read: "And you hath he quickened who were dead in tres- 
passes and sins" Eph. 2:1. This translating work of the 
resurrection of the dead is accom.plished by: 

1. "Renouncing the hidden things of dishonesty" 

(II Cor. U:2), renouncing the service of Satan^ and all 
his sinfrJi ways^ we announce to become separat ed from 
sin and to become dead to sin, Paul says^ "How^shall 
we that are dead to sin live any longer therein?" 
Horn, 6:2. 

2. By the act of being burled with Christ by baptism 
into death, also denotes sin must not only be dead to 

us but we must also b^-iry sin. 

3. The walk in newness of life,- the likeness of the 
resurrection in baptism becomes in fact the resurrection 
from, the dead sinful life of trespasses and sins, charg- 
ing the body, soul, and spirit with the divine energy, 
and beginning of eternal life, to enjoy the divine bene- 
diction of Jesus who says, "I am the res"arrection and 
the life, he that believeth on me though he were dead,' 
yet shall he live: And whosoever liveth and believeth 
in me shall never die. Believest thou this?" 

The Christian has died to sin^ and sin is buried , as 
Paul says, "Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be 
dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus 



Christ oiir Lord," Rom 6:11. . "For ye are dead, and 
your life is hid with Christ in God." No greater bles- 
sing can come to man itl this life,' than to be made free 
from sin, and alive in Christ* . "Beiing made free from 
sin ye became the servants, of righteousness." Rom, SH^ 
On the narrow way, the highway of holiness, in direct 
connection to heaven and. eternal lifej Indeed the begin- 
ning of the resurrection, of the dead in this life is 
the passport, and key to eternal felicity forever more. 

Begin to live, no more to die. 

Begin to give, nor reason vdiy^ 
Begin to walk the narrow way. 

Begin to talk of endless day# . 

Begin to love dear souls to win; . , 

Begin to rove away from sin# 
Begin to ndnd our Father's will> 

Begin to find our place to fill. 

Begin to speak the words of truth. 

Begin to seek eternal youth* 
Begin to weep with those who mourn. 

Begin to leap and be new l;)om* 

Begin to change in glory* s grace, ■ * " 

Begin to range in heavenly place 5 

Begin to -see the dawning bright. 
Begin to be children of light • " 

■ Begin to sigh for better ways. 
Begin t o cry f or holy days ♦ 
Begin to grow at lively pace; 
Begin to glow —a shining face* 

Begin to feel the Spirit's power, , . 
Begin to seal each precious hour; 
Begin to bask in holy ways, 

Jin to ask. Begin to praise* . v - 

Begin to sleep till niomihg song; 

Begin to keep a slumber long. 
Begin to free at trumpets call; 
• Begin to see my ill in ill* 

Star Route Box 1160 
Sonora, California 



— Rudy Cover — 

"What is spiritual food? We know that there is a 
natiiral body and we know there is a spiritual body* 
"What we eat naturally is the fuel our bodies use to 
keep them alive ^ grow, develop, and move about ^ But 
ifthat of the spiritual body? Isn't it reasonable that 
it too needs food so that it can grow and develop? 

Jesus said, '^Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of 
Man and drink his, blood, ye have no life in you* '* This 
we do symbolicarlly at communion, but there is more to 
life than symbols; "Man" is in the ■ flesh and it seems 
necessearj that lie have" natural signs or syrabols to 
understand the spiritual, Jesus also said, "I am the 
living bread which came down from, heciven; if any man 
eat of this bread he shall live forever, and the bread 
I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life 
of the world."'* From, these words we can be as suited that 
Jesus is that spiritual food that cam down from heaven 
and if we eat of tliis food or bread x-^e mil live for- 
ever, v/e cannot expect to live forever naturally, so 
it must refer to the spiritual body, "God is a soirit 
and they that worship him must worship him in spirit 
and in truth. " ^ VJe must develop and receive a spiritual 
body if we want to see God, because it. is only if we 
are like him that, we will be able to see him. 

"In the beginning was the Word aiid the Vmrd was with 
God and the Word wa^ God." (John 1:1) "It is the 
spirit that quickeneth; the. flesh profiteth nothing; 
the words that I speak --unto you they are spirit and 
they are life," By these scriptures we see that Jesus 
was the Word and the wcrds he spake were spirit and life. 
Would it not be reasonable to say that the words of 
Jesus were spiritual food? Again, Jesus says, "As the 
living Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father, 
so he that e ate th me, even he shall live by me." If 
we eat the bread of life or in other words assimilate 
the words of Jesus, ovr spiritual life will grow by 
the power of Jesus. We must et close to Christ. So 


close in fact that there is a oneness, a constant fellow- 
ship; we must abide in Him, ^\ He that abide th in 

the doctrine of Christ, he hath both the Father and the 
SonJ*^ (John 2:9) 

"Behold, I stand at. the door and knock: if any man,. 
hear my voice, and open the door, I. will come in to him, 
and will sup with him and he xdth me»" We do not very 
often eat with strangers and when we do it is usually 
embarassing, Jesus proposes to be a close friend, ''one 
that sticketh closer than a brother*'* He wants us to,; 
be ^a part of the family of God, Hearing the voice of 
Jesus, can only riBan to live by his word. . 

Now we know that food causes our bodies to live and 
whatever our decision is, our bodies will act according ♦ 
Here seems to me. a great mystery. If we live by the 
word of God and develop a healthy spiritual life, our 
actions of this natural body will be influenced by the 
spiritual, so that it will do good instead of evil, , , 
What a transformation this would cause if all the world 
would feed on that, bread of life thlt came from heaven, 
and it costs nothing but our owri will. It is given to 
us freely. How much we pay for food of the natural mani 
How we desire the very best J Vihy can. *t man put forth 
the same effort for his soul^s welfare? I sometimes 
wonder what we would see if we could view o^ur soul as 
God sees it. Wcul,d it be a healthy, glorious spiritual 
being, or would it be a poor, stained, sick, or shrivel- 
ed up being about to die? I know if we could see our- 
selves as God sees us we most certainty TOuld change .our 
ways, God has told us by his word, sho>m us by examples, 
and given his life, on the cross, that we mj_ght grow into 
a glorious being, only if we partake of that heavenly 
manna which is Christ the Lord, We are without excuse, 

— Tuolumne, California 

"God holds the prize. He calls us to accept it. 

It cannot be won without a struggle. He who enters 

the race becomes an object of scrutiny under the 
eyes of a critical world,'* —Selected 



Two distinct^ and opposing^ attitudes are apparent 
toward matters of controversy. One is the inclination 
to rush into a fray from the very love of a fight. The 
other is to so avoid all controversy as to become salt- 
less^ or to. be spineless* 

.The Bible represents the Christian life as a battle 
and. a warfare.. Some have supposed this to mean merely 
a struggle of the Spirit against the fleshy or a cons- 
cious separaticn from some of the most glaring forms 
of evil, or an endurance of suffering and privation. 
^But a little closer reflection should remind us that. 
the Christian warfare is also against "principalities^" 
against "powers^ " against "spiritual wickedness in high 
places," against apostates and apostasy, and even 
against Anti-Christ, 

It should never be forgotten that evil in its most 
alluring form, or in its most tempting guise, appears 
through personality. It is tlnrough the influence of 
^persons that people are most often led into sin. There 
is, a, companionship in evil. It is the Devil ■ through 
some appealing personality (an angel of light) that 
draws ;many away, VJhen he is resisted it means contro- 
versy, . It often sets men at variance >jith their m.ost 
.intim+ate friends, exactly as Jesus said it would do, - 

,„ This kind of. controversy has no bearing on the doct- 
rine of non-resistance,. Peter told us that we are to 
..resist the Devil. But when we resist the Devil vie must 
of ten resiat people .in the process. This does not mean 
that, w.e- are to strike or abuse .others in any way. But 
it .does mean that if we stand our ground by the right 
and do our* duty by the truth we cannot, by the very 
nature of iiie case, be on too intimate terms with many, 

Jesus did hot' fear controversy nor did '^He try to 
evade it,. He-xms mQst gentle, Roving, tender and com- 
passionate. It was. seed of him, "A bruised reed .shall 
He not break and poking flaK shall He not quench," 
showing His considerate .na tyre. He was a friend of 
publicans and sinners. Yet sinners also received His 
most scathing denunciation. Almost half of the Gospel 


of John,' particxilarly chapters 5 to ^^ are taken up 
mth a record of controversy, and the polemicist was 

No yaole -hear ted saint lovesr controversy for the sake 
of controversy. On the contrary he shrinks from, it and 
prefers to serve his Lord among the vines of the vine- 
yard instead of as a watchman on the tower • But both 
functions are necessary and neither vinedresser nor 
guard should sicorn the fiinction of the other,,.. 

God^s truth has always been held and established 
through controversy. Even ^the' very" creeds of Christen- 
dom have come into being as a form of reaction against 
error. And in the process of the formulation of these 
creeds men have been locked in verbal battle. It is 
the price that must bfteri be paid for the sake of truth. 

VJe have now come into an age of a certain broad-mind- 
ed-tolerance when it is no longer considered polite nor 
necessary that people concern themselves much about 
truth, ■ Even many preachers prefer a superficial tran- 
quility to the maintenance of truth. A sipine charity 
is exalted above love for the right. Anything i^hieh 
savors of a defense of the gosoel is cast aside as un- 
necessarily belligerent; and the m.en -who. will "take a' 
stand" are dismissed as dogmatists and partisans, wheth- 
er the charge is justifiable' or not. 

The late. J, B, Smith once pointed out that one of - 
the best ways of establishing true doctrine is through 
controversy or discussion,. He was careful to point out^ 
however, that it should net be to "doubtful disputation." 
That is, of a sort which w-uld show anger or arouse . 
animosity. Our problem today is that any necessary 
discussion- that shows signs of conviction, earnestness, 
or zeal is likely to be. decried as from -an evil motive. 

By virtue of identity with Jesus Christ, true Christ- 
ians vjill come into conflict with evil^ just as the 
Master Himself was in constant tension with the forces 
of evil. "It is. enough for the disciple that he be as 
his Master" (Matt* 10:25)« It constitutes no evidence 
that one is right when he is at peace with the worlds- - 
In fact, Tftiien one. is right in God's sight he itdll most 
likely excite a ce'rtain opposition toward himself , this 

12 ■■ • , . - THE PILGRIM 

from the very fact that his life is thereby a rebuke 
to evil.. A faithful witness will produce the same re- 
sult. Doubtless this is the meaning behind Je sua' 
declaration that He had not come to. send peace on earth 
but a sword, and that all ^filo would live godly in 
Christ Jesus would suffer persecution* 

A craven fear* of controversy should never drive us 
to compromise nor to a neglect of .truth or duty, 
— Editorial in Sword & Trumpet^. 19>9 

. THOUGHT FOR THE IffiEK -" - '' 

• ' "A word fitly spoken is like apples, of gold in 
" pict'ores of silver," Prov. 25:11. 

The right word at the right timei It is as beauti- 
ful to behold as a lovely silver basketful of golden 
apples. A word fitly siDoken is the word 'thai'' is need- 
ed at -tiie moment— the V'.^sA that x-iill put another person 
at ease in a difficult, situation; a word that will 
bring comfort to a trouoxed heart; a v/ord" that' i.dll 
^give enccui-^agement to a disco'ui^aged soul; a word that 
will spread healing balm on hurt feelings; a word that 
vjill bring calmness* in a storm of anger; a word that 
will tactf^dlly present a trutli, even though it be an 
unpleasant truth, in a manner that is acceptable. ^" 

A word fitly spoken may be Gcd^s Word— a word from' 
His Book, quick and powerful, directed by His Spirit, 
wiiich touches the ' sinner's innermost being, and brings 
him to salvation, or words of truth delivered oy a 
messenger of God which become 'alive with meaning and 
meet the', irjier most heed of one of His saints. ' ■ • " 
— Selected by Stella i^. Flora 

"Thus saith the Lard, Let not the wise man glory in 
his wisdom, neither let the mighty .man glory in his 
might, let not the rich man glory in 'his riches: 

But let him that glorieth glory ixi this, that he 
understandeth and knoweth me, that I am the Lord which 
exercise lovingkindness, judgm.ent, and righteousness, in 
the earth: for in these things I delight, saith the Lord." 

-Jer. 9*23s2h* 

THE PILGRIi4 ^ 13 


The theory of evolution -has come into existence- 
par tly because of outward feiinil'aritie& between certain'' 
forms of life. Even for the man who -daes not -accept ;. 
the. theory, some similaritxes are easy to" see,-^ The pre- 
cis^ theory can be stated somewhat a^ follows: AlU -;:.■ 
forms of life (bacterial^, 'insect^ -plantj^ animal, andv - : 
human) on the earth today deveioped over -a Vast period ■ 
of time (thro^agh changes explainable by- science)- from- ■' 
some original form of life. One- 'aspect of the theory -■ 
is that human life has developed from '^es. ' l^hen' the- ■ 
theory was publicized about a hundred years ago, it 
received a great deal of' support, but found many oppon^ 
ents among the top-flight scientist of the day. One ' ■ 
of them (Prof. Virchow) declared, ''It is all nonsense,- 
It cannot be proved by science that man descended from' 
the ape or from any other ctnimaU^ /mother (.Ur, Trass) 
stated, '*No proof of this fantastic theory can be given J^ 
In the years that have followed, the theory has becom.e 
more and more widely accepted by scidntists. It has 
never been proved, and so it remains a theory, but 
strangely enough, it is being accepted anyway by acien- 
tists— who usually declare that they can never accept 
anything that has not been proved] A present-day scien- 
tist, Anthony Standen, ad);nits this: "The" precise theory 
has never been proved at ^ all, but. . . it is accepted 
as a faith J V Other scientific voices have recently been 
raised in protest, either against the theory itself or 
against the stupid assumption that it has been proved. 
L, T. More,^ former .Professor of Physics at the Univer- 
sity of Cincinnati-,* within our generation has let loose 
a famous blast against evolution in his book, ^JThe Dogma 
of Evolution, "that- is still being ^^^idely quoted. In 
the of 19^1^ Er, Mortimer J. Adler, widely regard- 
ed as one of the most broad and brilliant thinkers of 
our day, "flatly challenged Darwin^ s. . , hypothesis 
relating men to apes" ("Time", June h, *5l)» Men and 
apes, he maintained, are as far apart "as a square and 
a triangel. There can be no intermediates— no 3-|-sided 

ll^ [ . . THE PILGRIM 

figure," During the give-and-take discussion period 
that followed his address, he answered a persistent 
critic with the following wisecrack: *»Sometimes the 
difference between a child and a pig is not very notic- 
eable, but the child grows up. to be a raan,. and the pig 
seldom does^" In the fall o£ '55, it was disclosed in 
scientific circles that the famous Piltdown.'Man, a 
collection of bones that was widely regarded 'for over , 
forty years as "a '^missing link'* between apes and n^n, 
has been discovered to be an absolute hoax and fraud* 
What did the "missing link" Piltdown bones actually 
consist of? Nothing but a hodgepodge of monkey, human, 
and elephant bones» It is now known that this collec- 
tion was "found?*, hy the same fellow who planted them 
a short time before! Er, D. Ralph Hcstetter, Professor 
of Biology at Easter Menrionite College, once said to 
me that the theory of evolution is ".the greatest hoax 
, there ever wasi" 

-Gospel Herald, 1957 


Gn the outside of your mailing envelope appears 
.the date your subscription expires. 

For your convenience a self -addressed envelope 
and renewal form is inclosed with this issiie. 

We thank you for your past subscription and 
interest, and hope for your renewal for- 1960, 

Wishing the grace of God upon all our readers 
for a prosperous and happy New Year, 

. :■ - . • . THE PILGRIM 



(Condensed from the lectures of C. G.. Finney^ 18U8) 



!• It is not founded in Christ's literally suffering the^- exact 
penalty of the law for them, and in this sense literally purch- 
asing their juistificati i^n and eternal salTation. The WeStirinis-' 
ter Confession of Faith affirms as follows: chapter on- Justifi— ■ 
cati.on section 3-^ "Christ by. his obedience and death, did fully ' 
discharge the debt of all those "77ho are thus justified, and did. . 
make a proper, real, and full satisfaction to his Father's justice 
in their behalf* Yet, inasimich as he "vjas given by the Father for 
them, and his obedience and satisfation accepted in their steadj 
and both freely, not for anything in them, their j'^^stifi cation 
is only of free grace that both the exact justice and rich 'grace 
of God might be glorified in the ju.stification of sinners •" If 
the framers of this confession had made, a distinction between 
the grounds and conditions of justification, so as to represent ; 
the graqious disposition that gave the Soxi, and that accepted 
his obedience and satisfaction in their stead, as the ground and 
moving cause, and the death and work of Christ, as a condition or 
as a means, as '"that without wldch" the benevolence of God could 
not Ydsely justify sinners,, their statement had been much improv- 
ed. As it stands, the transactions is represented as a proper 
full paymejit of the debt of the justif ied» All the grace con- 
sisted in giving his Son, and consenting to the substitution. 
But they deny that there is grace in the act of justification 
itself. This proceeds upon the ground of ^^'exact justice.'* 
There is, then according to this, no grace in the act of pardon 
and accepting the sinner as righteous. This is "exact justice,*^ 
because the debt is fully cancelled by Christ, Indeed, "Christ- 
ian, what do you thinic of this?" God has, in the act of giving' 
hi s S on and in c ons enti ng to the sub st i tut i on, exer ci s ed all t he' 
grace he ever mil. Now. your forgiveness and justification" are,^ 
according to this teaching, placed on the ground of "ex^ct just- 
ice*" You have now only to believe and demand "exact justice." r 
One act of your faith places your salvation on the ground of _ ' 
"exact justice." Talk no more of the grace of God in forgiveness! 
But stop, let us see* Miat is to be understood here by exact 
justice, and by a real, full satisfaction to his Father's justice? 
I suppose all orthodox Christians to hold, that e-verj sinner and 
every sin, strictly on the score of justice, deaerves eternal 
death or endless suffering. Did the framers of this confession' 
hol^ that Christ bore the literal penalty of the law for each of 
the saints? Or did they hold that by virtue of his nature and . 
relations, his suffering, though indefinitely less in amount than 
v/as deserved by the transgressors, was a .full equivalent to pub- 
lic justice, or govemmentally coiisidered', for the execution of • 
the liberal penalty upon the transgressors? If they meant this 


latter, I see no objection to it» But if they meant the former, 
namely, that Christ' suffered in ids' own person the full amoiint 
strictly due to all the elect, I say, 

iXm ) That it T^s naturally impossible. 
- (2» ) That his nature and relation to the goremment of God . 
■was such as to render it wholly linnecessary to the safe forgive- 
. i^ess of sins, that he should suffer precisely the same amount 
rteserved by siimers.t * 

/(3.) That if, as their substitute, Christ suffered for them 
the full amotint deserved by -them, then justice has no claim upon 
them, since. their debt is fully paid by the surety, ' and of coiirse 
the principal is, iu justice discharged. And since it is unde- 
hialable that the atonement -was made for the whole posterity of 
Adam, it must follow that the salvation of all men' is secured ., 
upsB th.e\ground of. '"exact justice^** This' is the conclusion %p 
%7hich- Huntington. .and his followers came* This doctrine of ■" !". 
literal imputal^ioji, is one of the strongholds of universalism,' 
and while this view of atonement and justification is held they' 
cannot be driven from it<. 

{4«) If he satisfied justice for them, in the sense of litest- 
ally and" exactly obeying -for them, why should his suffering be " 
imputed to them as a condition of their salvation? Surely they 
could not need both the imputation of his perfect obedience to 
them, so as to be accounted. in the law as perfectly righteous, 
and also the imputation of his sufferings to. them, as If he had 
not obeyed for theme Is God unrighteous? Does he exact of the 
su3^^ty, first, the literal and' full pa;^Tnent of .the: debt, and 
aecondly, perfect personal obedience for and in behalf of the 
sinner? Does he first e^oict fiill and perfect obedience, and 
then the same amount of suf f erirag as if there had been no obed- 
ience? .And this, too, of his beloved Son? 

■(5c) Miat Christian ever felt, or can feel in the presence 
of God, that he has a right to demand justification in the name 
of Ch:i;'ist, as due to him on the ground of *'lbj:act justice?" 
"observe, the framers of the Confession just quoted, studiously 
rej>resent all the grace exercised in the justification of sinw 
ners, as confined to the two acts of giving his Son and accept- 
ing the substitution© This done, Christ fully pays the debt, \ 
fully and exactly satisfies his Father* s justice* You need not, 
must not conceive of the pardon of sin as grace or favor. To do 
this is, according to the teaching of this OonfessioB, to dis- 
honor Christ. It is to reject his righteousness and salvation. 
What think you of this? One act of grace in giving his Son, 
and consenting to the substitution, and all forgiveness, all 
accepting or trusting as righteous, is not grace, but ''exact 
justice." To pray for forgiveness, as an act of grace, is 
,apostacy from Christ. Christian; Can 'you believe this? No; 
in your closet, smarting, under the sting of a recently committed 
sin, or broken down or bathed in tears, you cannot find it in 
your heart to demand **exact justice" at the hand of God, on the 
grotmd that Christ has fully and literally paid your debt. To 


represent the work %nd death of Christ as the ground of justifi- 
cation in this sense, is a snare and a stumbling-block« This 
view that I have just examined, conti^dicts the necessary con- 
victions of every saint on earth* For the truth of this asse3>- 
tion I appeal to the universal consciousness of saints* 

2r Out own works' , or obedience to the law or the gospel, 
are not the ground or foundation of our justification. That is, 
neither our faith, nor repentance, nor love, nor life^ nor any- 
thing done by us or wrought in us, is the ground of our justifi- 
cation. These are conditions of our justification, in the sense 
of a "not without which," but not the ground of it» Vfe- are 
justified upon condition of our faith, but not for our faith; 
upon condition of our repentance, love^ obedience^ perseverence 
to the end, but not FOR these things* These are. the COTOITIONS 
but^not the RMSOTS, GROUtTD, or PROCURING CAUSE of our justifi- 
cation. Ncue of these things must le oxaitted on pain of etersial 
dainiation. Nor must they be put in the place of Christ, upon 
the same penalty.. Faith is so much insisted on in the gospel 
as the "not without which" of our justification, that some seem 
disposefT, or at least to be in danger of substituting faith in 
the place of Christ; of making faith instead of Christ the Savior. 

3. Neither is the atonement, nor ani^thing in the mediatorial 
work of Christ, the foundation of our justification, in .the 
sense of the source, moving or procuring cause. This, that is 
the^ ground of our justification, lies deep in the heart of in- 
finite love* We owe all to that merciful disposition that 
performed the mediatorial w;ork, and died the accursed death to ' 
supply an indisperisible condition of our justification and sal- 
vation. To stop short iri the act which supplied the condition, 
instead of finding the depths of a compassion as fathomless as 
infinity, as the source of the whole movement, is to fail in 
discrimination* The work^ and death, and resurrection, and 
advocacy of Christ are indispensible conditions, are all-import- 
ant, but .not the fundamental reason of our justification. 

• 4» The, disinterested (impartial) and infinite love of God, 
the Father, Son, and Koly Spirit, is the true and only founda- 
tion .of the justification and salvation of sinners. God is. love, 
that is, he is infinitely benevolent. All he does, or says, or 
suffers, permits, or omits, is for one and the 'same ultimate 
reason, namely, to promote the liighest good of universal being* 

5» Christ, the second person in the glorious Trinity, 'is 
represented in scripture, as taking so prominent part m this 
work, that the number "of offices and relations which he sustains 
'to God and man. in it are truly wonderful. For example, he is 
repr e sent ed as b ei ng , — K± ng — Judge — Me diat or— Advo cat e — Rede emer- 
sur ety— wi s dom— ri ght e ou sne s s — s anoti f i cat i on^ — r ed empt i on — 
Prophet— Priest— pass over, or Lamb of God — the bread and water 
of life — true 'God and eternal life — our life — our all in all — 
as the repairer of the breach— as dying f«r our sins — as rising 
for our justification— as the resurrection and the life— as 


"bearing our griefs and oarr5dnLg our sorrows— as he, by Tjhose 
stripes we are healed— as the head of his people— as the bride— 
groom or husband of his church — as the shepherd of the flock--- , 
as the door by vahioh they enters— as the way of salvation— as * .» 
being inade sin for us — that we ^re tnade the righteousness of 
God in hins— that in him dwells all the fulness of the Godhead— 
■all power in heaven and earth is said to be given tl^. him^the 
true light that light eth every nnn that cometh into tn^ world-- 
Chidst in us the hope of glory — the true vine of which we are 
the branches — our brother^— Wonderful — Counsellor— the iidghtjr 
God— the everlasting Father — the prince of peace — the captain 
of salvation— the captain of the Lord's host# 

T'he s e are among t he of f i ci al r elat i ons of Chri st t o hi s 
people^ and "to -the great work of justification. I sh^Xl have 
frequent occasion to consider him in some of these relations, 
as we proceed in! this cou2*se of study.. Indeed, the offices, 
relations, and works of . Christ, are among the* most imp oxt ant 
topics of Christian theology. 

. Christ is our 'justification, in the sense that he carries 
into execution the vdaole scheme of redemption devised by the 
.adorable Godhead. To him the scriptures eveiy where direct the 
eyes of our faith and of our intelligence also. The Holy Spirit 
is. represented as not glorifying himself, but as speaking of 
Jesus, as taking of the things of Christ and showing them to 
his. people,' as glorifying Christ Jesus, as being sent by Christ,' 
as being -the Spirit of Christ, as being Christ himself dwelling 
in the hearts of his people. But I roiist forbear at pres^at. . 
This subject of Christ's relations needs elucidation in fut'Src 
lectures. ;. 

The relations of the old school view of justification to 
their yiew of depravity is obvious. They hold, as we have seen, 
that' tie constitution in every faculty and part is sinful. Of 
course, a retiim to personal, present holiness, in the sense of 
entire conf orEoity to the law, cannot with them be a condition 
of ju'stification. They mast have a justification while yet at 
least in some degree of sin. This mast be brought a,bout by 
iniuted righteousness. The intellect revolts at a justification 
in sin. So a scheme is devised to divert the eye* of the law ^7. 
and ef the law aiad of the lawgiver from the sinner to his sub- 
stitute, who has perfectly obeyed the law. But in 03rd^ tp 
make out the possibility of his obedience being imputed to them, 
it mast be assumed, that he owed no obedience for himself; than 
which a greater absurdity cannot be conceived. Constitutional 
depravity or sinfulness being once assumed, physical regeneration., 
physical santification, physical divine influence, imputed right-* 
ousness and justification, v/hile personally in the commission of. 
sin, follow of course. —Concluded 





The sacraments of the primitive Church were two— 
those of Baptism and the Lord's Supper, The ceremony 
of immersion (the oldest form of baptism) was perform- 
ed in the name of the three Persons of the Trinity; 
it xvas believed to be attended by the remission of 
original sin, and the entire regeneration of the con- 
vert, by the passage from the land of bondage into the 
kingdom of salvation. A great proportion of those bap- 
tized in the first ages were, of course, adults, and 
since the Church x^^as then scrupulous to admit none 
among its members, excepting those whose sincere repent- 
ance gave promise of a holy life the administration of 
that sacrament was in some sense accompanied by the re- 
mission, not only of the sin from Adam, but of all sin 
that had been previously comrPiitted by the proselyte- 
that is to say, such absolution was given to the repent- 
ance necessary for admission into Christ's Church. In 
after ages, by an error common in the groi-fbh of super- 
stition^ the efficacy inlierent in the repentance was . . 
attributed to the ceremony, and the act which washed 
away the inherited Gorru;3tion of natut-e was supposed 
to secure a general imp-onity, even for unrepented offen- 
ces. But this double delusion gained very little ground 
during the two first cent^oi-^ies. 

The celebrati.on of the sacrament of the Eucharist 
was originally accompanied by meetings wliich somewhat 
partook of a hospitable, or at least of a charitable 
character, and were called Agapae or feasts of 
Love. Every Christian, according to his circumstances, 
brought to the assembly portions of bread, vjine, and 
other things, as gifts, as it were, or oblations to the 
Lord. Of the bread and wine such as was required for 
the administration of the sacraiaent was separated from 
the rest, and consecrated by the bishop alone; its dis- 
tribution was followed by a frugal and serious repast. 
Undoubtedly, those assemblied acted not only as excite- 


merits to ardent piety, but also as bonds of strict re- 
ligious union and mutual devotion, during the dark days 
of terror and persecution. It was probably on those 
occasions, more than any other, that the sufferers 
rallied their scattered ranks, and encouraged each 
other, by one solemn act of brotherly communion, to con- 
stancy in one faith and association in the same afflic- 
tions. We observe, moreover, that as the dangers pass- 
ed away from the Church, that more social form (if we 
may so express it) of eucharistical administration 
gradually fell into disuse* 

MORALTTI. The morality of the primitive Church is 
the subject to which we proceed with high confidence 
and unalloyed satisfaction- for since, in the various 
history on which we are entering, our admiration of the 
excellence of Christianity will be sometimes interrupt- 
ed by sighs for the degeneracy of its professors, it 
is delightful to pause on that period when the faith, 
yet fresh from heaven, did really carry practice and 
devotion along vxith it— a period which preceded the 
birth of intestine persecution, and was unstained by 
the furious contests of sectai-^ies; ^lich did not wit- 
ness the superstitious debasement of the Chbirch, or tihe 
vulgai' vices of its ministers, or the burning passions 
of its rulers, we are taught, indeed, humbly to believe 
that at some future, and probably distant period, the 
xvhole world ^^dlll be uriited in the true spirit and prac- 
tice of Gixri^tianity; but a revievang the history of 
the past, we are compelled to corJ'ess that the only- 
model at all apparoaching to that perfection is confined 
to the two first centuries of our faith, and that it 
began to fall off in excellence even before the con- 
clusion of that period. But transient as it x-iras, we 
still recur to it T-jith pious scttisfaction, and we re- 
joice both as men and as Christians that our nature 
has been found capable of such holy exaltation,, and 
that our religion was the instrument xiiich exalted it. 

Certainly the character of the first Christians, 
and we are not without guides vho make us acquainted 
v^dth it, presents to us a singular spectacle of virtue 
and piety, the more ^lendid as it was surrounded by 

THE. PILGRIM .: .. ... ZX 

very mournful and very general depravity. ¥e cannot 
read either St, Clement ^s description of the early '■ 
condition of the Church of Corinthy or Origen's pane-- 
gyric on that of Athens^ mthout recognising a -state 
of socity and morality such as all the annals of pagan- 
ism do not discover to us, and such as its principles 
(if it had any fixed principles) could not ev6r have 
-Created* • The folloTAang lines are a quotation from the 
former, 'You were all hiomble in spirit, nothing boast- 
ing, subject rather than subjecting, giving rather tJtan 
receiving. Contented with the food of God, and care*^' 
fully- embracing his words^ your feelings were expanded, 
and his sufferings were before your eyes— so profound 
and beautiful the peace that was^^gix^en to you, and so- 
insatiable the desire of beneficence. Every division, 
schism was detestable to you; you wept over the failings 
of yoixr' neighb-orsj you thought their defects yom^ ovm, 
and were impatient after every good work.'iic. 

It is true .that soon after the period celebrated by 
this gloxving description some dissensions disturbed the 
peace, and probably the morality, of the Church of 
Corinth— but we have no reason to believe that they 
were of long duration, or left any lasting consequences 
behind them. 

The above passage refers to the Ciiristians of Greece j 
■and there is a sentence in the letter of Pliny to Trajai^ 
already quoted, giving still stronger testimony to the 
virtues of the- Asiatics. 'They bind themselves by an 
oath, not to the commission of any vrickedness, but not 
to be guilty of theft, or robbery, or adultery^- never 
to falsify their word, nor to deny a p]edge committed 
to them when called upon to retui'n it.'"^'- 

Bardesanes,. a learned Christian of Kesopotaroia, who 
lived in the time of Marcus Antoninus, has the follox'iring 
passage, preserved to us by Eusebius. 'Neither do 
Ch^ristians in Parthia indulge in polygamy, though they 
be Parthians; nor do they marry their own daughters in 
Persia, though Persians. Among the Bactrians and the 
Gauls, they do not commit adultery; but wheresoever they 
are, they rise above; the evil laws and, customs of the 
country. ' This is not only a very powerful, but almost 

22. THE . PILGRE-l 

an universa;!" testitridny in favor of Christian morality;, 
and there are 'some to whom its truth will appear the 
less questionable, because it comes from the pen of a., 
heretic ♦ 

The, virtue of chasity^ which may have 
been celebrated in the heroic ages of paganism, was 
certainly little reputed in the east, during the more 
enlightened rule of philosophy, was very rigidly culti- 
vated by the primitive converts. This truth, which is 

'generally attested by the .passages above quoted, is 
made the subject of peculiar ex'ultation by Justin Martyr, 
But the continence of the first Christians did not de-. 
generate into any superstitious practice; yet it seems, 
certain that, in the ages imjnediately subsequent, the 
simple principle of the Gospel began to be iini^easonably 
e:Kaggerated; and somewhat later the progress of monast- 
■cism was forwarded by the exalted value placed on that 
virtue. So that excess of admiration blinded enthusi- 
asts as to' its real nature and character, and led them 
to invest it >jith perfections and pretensions vdiich 
were at variance with the advancement and happiness of 
human society. 

The heathen governments, even the Roman in its high- 
est civi.lisation, tolerated, and perhaps encouraged, 
the unnat^jral practice of exposing infants— i^jho in 

■ that condition were left, as it mig;ht happen^ to perish 
fromi cold or stai^vation, or preserved, for the more 
dreadfiol fate of public prostitution. This practice 
was' held in deserved detestation by, the followers of 

— Waddington ' s His tor y of the Church . 

Lamb of God, Thou soon in glory 
. Wilt to this sad world return. 

All thy foes shall quake before thee. 
All that now despise thee mourn, 
; , . Then shall we at thine appearing 
.... ■ .' With thee in thy kingdom reign; 

Thine the praise and Thine the glory 
Lamb of God for sinners slain,— Sel. 



Glorious things of thee are spoken, 

Zi.on, City of our God I 
He 'whose Word cannot be broken, 

Form'd thee for his cwn abode* 
On the Rock mf ages founded, 

Y/hat can shake thy sure repose? salvation's -wall surrounded. 

Thou nmy'st smile at all thy foes# 

See, the streams of li-ving -waters 

Spring from eternal lore, 
Well supply thy sons and daughters. 

And all fear of "want remove ♦ 
'vVho can fadnt while such a. river 

Ever flows their thirst t 'assuage; 
Grace, which like the Lord, the Giver, 

Never fails from age to age« 

Round each habitation hovering. 

See the cloud of fire appear. 
For a glory and a covering. 

Showing that the Lord is near* 
Thus deriving from their banner. 

Light by night and shade by day. 
Safe they feed upon the manna 

y^hich He gives them when they pray* 

Blest inhabitants of Zion, 

Yfeshed in the Redeemer's blood; 
Jesus, vmom their souls rely on. 

Makes them kings and priests to GodI 
•Tis his love his people raises 

Over self to reign as kings: 
And as priests his solemn praises 

Each for a thank-offering brings. 

Savior, if of Sion's city 

I through grace a member am; 
Let the vforld deride or pity, 

I will glory in thy name: 
Fading is the worldling's pleasure. 

All his boasted pomp and shov^J 
Solid joys, and lasting treasure. 

None but Sion's children know# 

— John Newton, 1779 



The second epistle was written not long after 
the first. Silas . and ; Timothy were still with him 
probably aro"aAd^3 A»D, and from" the same place, 
Corinth. The evidence for it is even yet more con- 
clusive than for, the first. It is alluded to by 
Polycarp, cited by Irenaeus^ Clement of Alexandra, 
and Tertullian. This letter is supplementary to 
the first. That had been in some measure missappre- 
hended, and the coming of Christ was taken to be 
close at hand. Moreover an -unauthorized use had 
been made of the apostle's name. He therefore wrote 
to correct the mistake and to check the evil results 
which had flowed from it in disorderly conduct* 

This epistle comprises, besides the inscription 
and conclusion, three sections: 1. A thanksgiving 
and prayer for the Thessalonians. 2. The ratifi- 
cation of their mistake, and the doctrine of the 
Man of sin. 3* Sxindry admonitions to prayer, with 
a confident expression of his hope respecting tliem, 
and to co:^rect the disorderly. 

He then concludes mth salutation and apostolical 
benediction adding a remarkable authentication of 
his letter. 

The style of these epistles is for the most part 
like many others, PLAIN and quiet. 

Roger Skiles 
Anderson, Ind, 



''Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain 
, from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul." 1 Peter 2: 1 1 


My Jesus^ as thou wiltl 

may thy will be mine I 
Into thy hand of love 

1 would my all resign^ 
Through sorrow or through joy^. 

Conduct me as thine own, ■ 
And help me still to say, . 
My Lord, thy will be done! 

% Jesus, as thou wilt J 

Though seen through many a tear. 
Let not my star of hope 

Grow diin or "disappear; 
Since thou on earth hast wept. 

And sorrowed oft alone 
If I must weep with thee, 

.My Lord-, thy will be donei 

My Jesus, as thou wiltj 

All shall be well for mej 
Each changing future scene 

I gladly trust with thee: 
Straight to my home above 

i travel calmly on^ 
And sing in life or death, 

]yiy Lord, thy will be donel 

- Selected by Mary Barnliart 
Modesto^ California 


THE PILGRIM is a religious magazine published monthly by Daniel F. Wolf in the 
interests of the members of The Old Brethren Church. Subscription rate: $1.50 per year. 
Sample copies sent free on request. Address: THE PILGRIM, Rt. 3, Box 1378, Modesto, Calif. 


On page UO of this month ^s Pilgrim we are begining 
a series of lectures by Mr. C, G. Finney on the subject 
of "Sanctification," These lectures were obviously 
given to counteract the influence of certain Galvinistic 
teachings^ in Mr. Finney's time_, and still energetically 
advocated and publicised in ovr time, that man is in- 
capable of obeying God's demands for righteousness. If 
this assumption is accepted as a Biblical truth, then 
one or the other of two subsequent notions seem logical^ 
and indeed necessary, to explain and justify the soul's 
conduct and attitude in this life toward God's laws of 

The one believes that not only did Christ's death on 
the cross pay the penalty for this '^necessary" disobed- 
ience of man, but also, since the penalty is paid, there 
is no more ability now, than before, to obey God's 
demands for righteousness. Therefore, through the grace 
of God, Giirist also "obeys" these demands FOR us or in 
our stead. 

The other equally realizes his "helplessness" and 
"inability" to satisfy God's demands for righteousness] 
but he is unaware of this "gracious provision" whereby 
Christ obeys for us, and is greatly distressed by his 
^'inability" and consequent "failure" to please God, and 
lives, more or less, in a state of guilt and condemna- 
tion, and must find some way' to^' excuse or explain this 
involuntary failure. 

Because of these beliefs, the statement is frequent- 
ly made from the pulpit, and in writing, that man has 
a "sinful nature." It seems necessary, therefore, be- 
fore we proceed with a discussion of this subject, to 
define what is meant by a "sinful nature." 

If it is meant that all of man's natural tendency is 
to obey the impulses and desires and appetites of his 


natural beings this is conceeded to be, a fact. But 
those impulses -and desires that spring wholly from our 
natural physical being are God given for good and use- 
ful purposes j> and ^in themselyes, when used for the pur.- 
pdses f6r\ which they were given^. are .not sinful. It is 
the morbid and wicked abuse of these natural. affections 
and appetites in ways that, are against naturej^. as;. des- 
cribed by the apostle Paul in Romans 1: 18-32 that is ■ 
"sin/ . ., - 

If^ by a "sinful nature." it is intended that man can- 
not do otherwise^ but, must .of necessity commit sin^. 
or disobey God ^s laws (which. is the Bible definition of 
sin), then the. expression is not Biblical, and not true* 

The real inquiry, then is. Has man had in every age, 
and does he. still have,, a natural ability to obey the 
voice of God, in whatevermanner he has made his -vnJJ,- . 
kno^m) whether it be a corrimcmdment to do, pr to not do^ 
a certain thing? 

The children of Israel repeatedly disobeyed God/s ■ 
voice, before they received the law, from tlae time they 
xfere come out of Egypt until, they came to Sinai. And 
so, when. they were come tp Sinai, three days before they 
received the law, God told Moses' to say to ^ them, "Now 
therefore if ye will obey my voice indeed, * and keep my ^ 
Covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto mp 
^bove all people." Ex. 19 t 5. All that was required pf 
them \ms to obey God* s voice— both before and after .■-^; 
they received' the; law. That. they had both the ability, 
and .encouragement comply with this requirement , is evi- . 
dent from the fact that God punished them for disobed- 
ience.- To believe otherwise would be to believe that 
God is unjust:. There is no evidence "that God ever re- 
quired anything ofaiiy one. in any ^ige, which they were . 
incapable of 'doing. Or that he ever pimished anj one. '. 
for' failure to dp what they were incapable of ^doing, , 

"The Children/ of Israel did not have, the liberty or 
opportunity to administer any goverrHnent of their own 
while they were, in servitude to the Egj^ptiansj. and ^ 
there'is rip evidence that God gave them any. laws and.. 
statutes to., obey while they were in that condition. 
'The Scriptures indicate that they served idols, and ^ 


worshipped other gods while in Egypt, yet there is no 
indication that they were punished for it because at 
that time they did not have the freedom to serve God 
as he later commanded them to do when they were free» 

But when the time came for their deliverance, then 
they- were commanded to slay the passover -lamb and strike 
the blood on the door posts and lintels, to save them 
from the destroying angel which was to pass over Egypt* 
This they had the' ability to do, and had they disobeyed 
they would have suffered the consequences » Thus it is 
abundantly clear that in every age God^s requirements 
of man have always been consistent with his ability to 
obey. In Jeremiah 7: 22,23 it is said, 'Tor I spake 
not unto yotir fathers , nor commanded them in the day 
that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, "concern- 
ing bxarnt offerings and sacrifices: But this thing com- 
manded I them, saying. Obey my voice, and I will be 
your God and ye shall be my people : and walk ye in all 
the ways, that I have commanded you, that it may be well 
with you," 

"We believe that the first pair in Eden were capable 
of obeying God; that the power of choice included the 
power to act*"" It is clear that God x^illed that they 
should not eat of the forbidden tree, because he warned 
them to not do so, and of the consequences if they did. 
To believe that this commandment \ms not in the greatest 
sincerity and truth, would be to disbelieve God. This- 
revealed will of God and their Gcd-given liberty to 
choose, is no doubt what is meant in Romans 8: 20 which 
says, "For the creature was made subject to vanity, not 
willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the 
same in hope." God did not will that they should trans- 
gress, nor did he CAUSE them to transgress, but he 
created them in the highest order of being— the power 
to choose^ But this power of choice includes the power 
to make wrong choices as well as the right. Can any- 
one suppose that the choice which they made was better 
for them and humanity than if they had obeyed? The 
tree of life was also in the midst of the garden and it 
is clearly indicated that they had the liberty and abil- 
ity to eat of it before they transgressed. Had they 


done so, D^^es any .one believe that God woxild not have 
been able to carry into fulfillment his purpose of 
eternal life and the kingdom which he purposed and px*e- 
parM before the world began? . . .: 

That men in every age have had the ability to obey 
God and please him is attested to by the great number 
of "holy men of old ^» who are recorded to have done so; 
some of whom ar^e named in the eleventh chapter, of 
Hebrews* These include Abel, Enoch, Noah, Abraham, 
Job, Samuel and the prophets, "This was possible by 
reason of the fact that God's reo^^uirements of them was 
always consistent with the ' ability which he knew they 
possessed, and the necessity of the times and condition 
in ^-fhich they lived. Never did he reo^uire anything 
impossible J but only that they obey his voice. We 
have no reason to think that Moses did not have" the 
ability to do what God commanded him at the waters of 
Maribahj nor can" we think that David did not have the 
power to refrain from committing the sin which he did 
in the matter of Uriah ' s v?if e , " 

a the New Testament it is said that Zachariah and 
Elizabeth, the parents of J"ohn the Baptist, "were both 
righteous before God and' walking in all the commandments 
and ordinances blameless*" Nothing more was required 
of them in their position at that time, . It is note- 
T,jorthyin this respect to observe how John the Baptist 
answered the people who asked him,' "'What shall we do; 
th^n?V 'Lxil<:e 3: 10-lU. The requirements of them at /that' 
time 'was not the sai'ae as Jesus laid upon the ■ apostles 
and brethren in Matthew 28: 19,20, . 

The apostle Paul, when preaching to the men of Athens, 
said that in times past God had "winked'* at some ignor- 
ant and idolatrous worship, "but now commands men every 
^here to repent," Thus we believe it becaim^ the duty 
of every man under the sound of Paul's voice that day 
to repent, for they had the ability to do so. Those 
who did not were in a state of disobedience to God, 
and if they remained so, they were in the act of commit- 
ing sin. 

So when Jesus began preaching the gospel of the king- 
dom, he said, "Repent and believe the gospel," It was 


possible for every one who heard him to obey, and their 
ability imder the coiiMandment fully obligated them to 
do so. To not obey imder such circumstances is to 
commit sin* This is why Jesus said, "Of sin, because 
they believe not on me»" 

It seems m.ost unfortunate that it should ever have 
been taught from the piilpit, or by Christians anywhere, 
that it is necessary that man should sin, either by 
reason of the manner in which he was created^ or because 
of the transgression of Adam, Sufficient examples have 
been cited from the Scriptures to prove that man does 
have the ability to obey God, VJith such faithful obed- 
ience from the heart God is well pleased and coiints it 
as righteousness. This is what is called in the New 
Testament, "The righteousness which is. by faith." 
This was a possibility and fact under the Old Covenant, 
and is greatly enhanced by grace under the New, by the 
forgiveness of sins that are past tlirough the forebear- 
ance of God. Thus the Apostle Paul says that the grace 
of God which brings salvation, teaches us to live sober- 
ly and righteously and Godly in this present world, 

/ill that is required of the sinner for the present 
is to repent and believe the gospel, I'Jhen he obeys 
this commandment, then the gospel teaches him to be 
baptized for the remission of sins to unite him with 
the body of Christ in his death and resurrection. 
Then, and not until then, begins Christian growth and 
service with the whole heart, soul, body, and spirit. 
Nothing more is asked and nothing less is expected. 
This the Apostle Paul said he did: "Forgetting those 
things which are behind, and reaching forth unto those 
things which are before, I press toward the mark for 
the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. 
Let us therefore as many as be perfect, be thus minded," 
Jesus' parable of the talents (i^iatt, 2$) teaches this 
same lesson. 

In the eigth chapter of Romans we are told how 
Christians may live uncondemned and fulfill God's law 
of righteousness: "That the righteousness of the law 
might be fulfilled in us who walk not after the flesh 
but after the Spirit." — D.F.W, 

THE FILGRPi 31 .. 


. N0.-2 . 
J. I. Cover 

"Therefore doth my Father iove me, because I lay '•-" 
down my life that I might take it again. No man taketh 
it from me, but I lay it do^m ox myself. I have po-wer 
to lay it do"wn, and I'have power to take it again. This 
commandment have I received •* from my Father," John 10:'17, 
18.- Jesus lay dowi hxs life at the cross of his (5wn 
will and power and descended (Eph. h*9) into the lolf^^er 
parts 'of the earth. Before the gates of death the King 
of Glory demanded admi-ttance (Psa. 2l|.:7,9) scad, the Lord 
even of the hosts of the dead, with the tread of the 
mighty conqueror', entered the abode" of the dead, and 
preached to the vSjjirits in prison, I Peter 3:18, 19 • 

With his own mighty power and commandment of the 
Father, he arose from the dead, "abolished death, and 
hath brought Ijf e and iimnortality to light through the 
Gospel, (II Tim. 1:10) for he sajs, "Because I live, 
ye shall live also," John lit: 19 • It was a "wonderful 
privilege the disciples enjoyed to behold our risen Lordj 
Angels announced his resarreeoion as they announced his 
birth. Mary Magdaline first ^ saw Him,' before he ascend- 
ed to our Heavexily Father. John 20:17. The other wo- 
men saw hiru on the vray after Jesus returned to eai*th 
again. Matt. 28:9. Pater saw- Hiiri- alone, then the 
Apostles, and above five hundred brethren at once. 
I Cor. 15': 6. Jesus the fir^st- begotten of the dead 
(Act 26:23, Rev^ 1:5). says,. "I am he that liveth and 
was dead, and behold I am alive evermore, Amenj and 
have the kej^s of hell and of death." Rev. 1:18. "He 
that hath the key of David, he that openeth, and no 
man shutteth, and shutteth and no, openeth." Rev. 
3*7. Jesus was wonderfully rchanged- from his condition 
of dwelling in the fie shj— gone the haggard, suffering 
countenance, the bloody, head, hands,, feet, side and 
back, so shamefully treated to torture, and s;iff eringj 
every wound, every mark of suffering and sorrow now 
marks Him as our Redeemer forever. He says. Behold 
my hands -and my feet, that it is I, ^- myself j handle me. 


and see 5 for a spirit hath not flesh and bones^ as ye 
see me have. And when he had thus spoke he showed them 
his hands ^ and his feet. And while they yet believed 
not for joy^ and wonder^ he said unto them have ye here 
any meat? and they gave him. a piece of broiled fish 
and an honey comb." L^olce 2ki39y UO, Ul. "Reach hither 
thy finger^ and behold my hands, and reach hither thy 
hand; and thrust it into my side; and be not faithless 
but believing." John 20: 27. "They shall look upon me 
whom they have pierced." Zach. 12:10, The scars of 
Jesus J the marks he bears should endear him to us for, 
"With his stripes we are healed" — our living Lord, 

Deep in the caverns dark. 

Entered omt Saviooir; 
Death's grim abode so stark. 

For man*s behaviour* 
Hopeless without the Lord, 
., They hear his gracious "word. 
Loosing the binding cord. 

Having his favor* 

No one e^se could save, ■ . . 

But our Redeemer; 
Key to the covered grave* 

Banner and streamer. 
Floating from heaven high; 

Redeemed the ransomed cry, 
Living no more to die 

After lif es tremor* 

Jesus in glory rose. 

Living forever; 
Victorious over foes. 

Loving endeavore* 
Praise to the Zing of Kings, 

Rising -with healing wings. 
Salvation to us brings; 

Part from him never. 

Jesus is coming soon; 

Watching and longing; 
Mdnight or highest noon, , • . 

Sky, Angels thronging* 
See Jesus face to face; 

Finished the Christian race; 
Each finding life aiad place* 

Ever belonging© 

1160 Star Route, Sonera, Calif* 


Elder John Klien 

"Rid me/ and deliver me from the hand of strange 
children, vjhose mouth speaicetfx vanity, and their right 
hand is a right hand of falsehood: ■ that our sons may 
be as plants growi up in their youth j that our. daught- 
ers may be as corner stones, polished-after the simi- 
litude of a palace;" Psalm llti;: 11, 12,. . 

This is a ironderful prayer from the heart of one 
who was both priest and king of^hife people. As a priest, 
David had the care of the spiritual welfare; of his 
people; and as a king, the civil prosperity of Judah 
and Israel. The prayer of my text is offered in behalf 
of both these interests, tiie spiritual and' the temporal. 
Probably no man ever felt more deeply the truth express- 
ed in his own words, elsewhere recorded, "Kappy is' the 
popple >diose God is Jehovah," than David did. The" 
lofty consciousness, >iiich is the orderly outgrowth of 
correct knowledge of God's love, wisdom and pox^^er^ and 
man's utter lack of all these attributes, accounts for 
the dependence and trust he reposed in' God, This call- 
ed forth the prayer of my text,' It contains three' peti- 
tions. Tlie first is FOE DELIVEMNGL FROb STfiANGE CHIL- 
DRE-N; the second, THAT THE SONS Mill BE AS PIAIITS (^live 
•trees) GROWN. UP BJ TliEIR lOUTH; the third, THAT ThE 

David comes into the presence of the Lord as the 
representative of his kingdom. His watchful eye has 
seen the tracks and his listening ear has he^:»d the 
steps of strange feet. They are 'the feet of the sur- 
rounding idolatrous nations. He calls them strange 
children, for such they ai-ei because in language, man- 
ners and dress they give proof that they are not of 
Judah and Jerusalem, but of Sodom and Egypt. More than 
this, these strange children are enemies. They wuld 
break up the self-denying worship of the true God and 
rob the sanctuary of all its sacred garniture. They 
woifLd corrupt the morals, debase the manners, and de- 


prave the tastes of the yoimg, "Their mouth speaketh 
vanity.'' - They boast of their liberty. Their sinful 
indulgences are not restrained by law. They are FREE 
to do whatever the lust of the flesh and the eye may 
incline them to doi "Their right hand is the right 
hand of falsehood," This figure is very strong. The 
RIGHT HAND in this place is figuratively put for know- 
ledge, wisdom, power, and xsrhatever else they may vainly 
boast of having. But they are destitute of all these. 
They Mve no knowledge of that Aich is good, because 
they desire it not. They have no msdom, because they 
have never lifted their minds and hearts to the high 
plane of desire to do justice and judgment. They have 
no power save that which is of the nat^oral man; and 
that power, unless properly restrained, is always to 
be feared. No wonder that he says of these idolatrous, 
licentious people that "their right hand is the right 
hand of falsehood.." 

But hox^^ is the Lord rid him of and deliver him from 
the hand of these strange children? By causing fire to 
fall from heaven and consume them? By causing a flood 
of water to drown them? Or by m.aking the earth to open 
her jaws and devour them? No, no; in none of these 
ways; for in such destruction of enemies there is no 
trial of the faith of his people, Brethjren, do you 
'knoxf. that it is, has been and to the end of time will 
be the pleasure of our heavenly Father to try the faith 
of his children?. This cannot be done independent of ■ 
means. Do you know that a tree standing in a stormy 
place takes deeper root than one. that groves up in a 
calm, sheltered spot? Do you know that a child shield- 
ed from every trial, and kept out of the reach of all 
temptation, will grow up mth a very weak moral develop- 
ment? The back that is never made to bear a load will 
forever stay weak. The hand and arm ~anused to toil will 
lack strength and skill* God does not want a kingdom 
made up of imbeciles. He wants a people strong in 
faith, yho can make a good fight, "the good fight of 
faith; lay hold of eternal life," and if needs be 
"take the kingdom of heaven by violence," the violence 
that resists the devil and makes him. leave tracks 


which point ax-fay from where his people stand. The 
track always tells which way the fox has gone. 
■ -This strength of faith. Brethren, is included in 
David »s prayer for his people, 'and he puts it in this- 
shape: "That our sons -may be as plants (olive trees; 
see Psalm 128:14.) grown up in their youths". We all know 
that plants, including trees, make their best growth and 
yield their best results^ in the open-air^ iiohere ■ they-, 
are exposed to the sun, wind;, rain.^ storm and* drouth-, . 
And ■ it is there they- -can receive': the tillage they ne,ed, 
' You^ see how readily this beautiful figure applies to 
the rearing and' education of children, "That our sons 
may. be GROW UP IN' TKEIR YOUTH. "^ Their manliood as to 

'faith, virtue, obedience, xdsdom intelligence and piety 
is largely deveoped while they are yet- young. . How many 
irdstakes are made by par'ent,s- right here i They. say of 
their sons: "Ah, they are yoimg.' Ai^ter awhile they 
will be through with somng their- wild .oats, and. then 
1 ;expect better things ox them." The better things may 
come^ but David prayed otherwise.' He -wanted the bet-ter 
things to grow up vjith their groi/\rth,. and strengthen with 
their youth, as lambs may be perfect in form and quality 
before they are fully developed into sheep..; 

But more .' Ke prays that "our daughters may be as 
corner stones, polished after the similitude of .a palacej' 
Many of us, no doubt, iiave seen palaces built of polish- 
ed stones, David almost breaks irie.- down under the weight 
of his strong and significant figiur^es. ■ He wants the 
sons of Judah and Jerusalem to be fruit-boaring trees 
with strong roots struck deep into the ground. But 
the sphere in vrhich the daughters are .to move,^thQ^ part 

'they are- to act,'^the place they are to hold. in .the soc- 
ial and religious life of the chui^ch and the world,-: is 
different from that of the sens, and so he uses a very 
different figure. ■' They are to be corner .stones, poli- 
shed and set into a palace. Corner stones^ from the 

•ground to the- roof, are those upon viiicb the strength 
and beauty af a building greatly, depend, ,A defect here 
mars the appearance and detracts largely from the per- 
manence and value of the structure, ■■ David- wants to see 
the 'daughters strong and solid as corner stones, in 


faith^ virtue^ wisdom and all else that helps to make 
a woman strong: and at the same time plished with all 
the refinements of taste, modesty, beauty, gentleness, 
tender-heartedness and love^ 

Since God has specially endowed woman with large 
capacities for developing these powers and graces, let 
her look to it that they be not suffered to lie bxiried 
in a napkin, or perverted to the idolatrous worship of 
the goddess of fashion. The plastic and pliable temp- 
erament of vroman tends tox^ards making her an easy prey 
for the tempter, when he approaches her with smiles, 
bearing in his hands jewels of gold, braided hair, and 
costly apparel ♦ She is lured the same by the giddy 
revel and the fashionable dance— trusting, thoughtless, 
happy child; ready for almost any pleasure that makes 
the cheklc to glow cmd the eye to sparkle with delight! 

Mother, be patient, watchful and wise in training 
your daughters* Withhold from them no good thing, but 
teach them to shun the ways that are ''the w^ays of hell," 
Fathers, be mild, but firm in training your sons into 
habits of sobriety, temperance and absteraiousness from 
all bad habits. Pray -with them and for them and if 
possible teach them to feel that there is something 
better than the life and purer than the love of this 
world. May God bless the young people of our land and 
make them the pillars of his truth is my prayer, 

-Life and Labors of Elder John Kline, IS^U. 


A man has been running about in Palestine for more 
than twenty yeai'^s with the Old Testament in his hands. 
His firm faith in the trustworthiness of the Book has 
led to astounding results. That man is P^bbi Nelson 
Glueck, president of the Hebrew Union College of Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, 

Mien the Jews of the fiteenth century B,C. entered 
the Promised Land, they found forests and orchards and 
vineyards, flowing springs and great and small cisterns, 
walled cities and hundreds of towns and villages— a 
civili nation long established and well developed. 


Egyptian records give us glimpses of Palestine long 
before the Israelites were delivered from bondage in 
the land of the Pharaohs, Tothmes III^ ^'the Egyptian 
Alexander the Great j" annexed no fewer than 119 toxms 
in Palestine, 

The Egyptian records^ however^ hardly prepare us for 
the. density of population and the high type of civili- 
sation suggested in the division of the land among the 
tribes as set forth in the Book of Joshua, In the 
territory allotted to the tribe of Judah alone at least 
112 "cities with their villages" are named. The "cities 
with their villages" allotted to the other 'oribes 
brought the total to about twice that nujnber in the ter- 
ritory west of the Jordan River, 

The development and population of Palestine were 
still greater in the time of our Lord, Galilee had a 
"vast population." It has been suggested that never 
had a small sheet of water had so many boats on it and 
so many human habitations around it as the Sea of Gali- 
lee in the days of our Lord, All over the land towns 
Bxid villages were everywhere. 

How different the pictui-^e when the Jews began re- 
turning to Palestine in the twentieth century! Gone 
were the cities and towns and villages. Gone the for- 
ests^ orchards^ and vineyards. Empty and broken the 
cisterns 5 unused and forgotten the wells. The land 
that had flowed "with milk and honey" had become a 
wasteland of human poverty. 

But the Jews returning to Palestine believed that . 
the land ^lich had sustained so much life in the long 
ago would do it in these modern days. Led by Dr, Glueck 
and others like him^ they turned to their Scriptures 
and found them a marvelous guidebook in developing 
their new home. 

Two Old Testament statements seem especially to have 
challenged Nelson Blueck. One was G^n, 13:10s "And 
Lot lifted up his eyes^ and beheld all the plain of 
Jardan^. that it was well watered everyi;%here, . ,even 
as the garden of the Lord." That statement found no 
confirmation in the literature of the centuries since, 
George Adam Smithy the leading authority on the geog- 


raphy of Palestine in the nineteenth oentvrj^ KTote, ; 
^^tne valley of the Jordan never seems to have been a 
populous place" and assigns three reasons why it has 
"so much deserved the name of wilderness." 

Still believing his Scriptures, Glueclc. combed the 
Jordan Valley with the wisdom of an archaeologist. He 
foxmd evidence -that xiiile only hundredis of people live 
in the vallqy today^ thousands lived there in other ^. ^ 
centuries. He declares that "beyond doubt" the valley 
was "once densely inhabited." On the west' side of the 
river alone. Glue ck found more than- seventy sites of 
■' ancient settlements, .and -estimated that some of them' 
had been "founded mor§ than five thousand years ago." 
The population of the Jordan Valley probably reached 
its greatest dei^ity during the period from the second 
to the sixth century. A.D. 

Another portion" of the Old Testament which, challeng- 
■ ed the young: archaeologist was Deut. 3;7-9. It declar- 
es., "For- the Jjord- thy God^bringeth thee into a good 
land. , .a land ^ose stones are iron, and out of 
wk)se hills thou mayest dig brass (copper)." Another 
statement in I Kings tied in with thisr "all these 
-vessels, which, Hiram made to King Solomon for the^ . 
house of the Lord, were^ of bright brass. In the plain 
of - Jordan diii- the ■ king cast them, in the clay ground 
between- Succoth and Zarthan*" 

Dr. Glueck j^ent some twenty years verifying these 
statements and. revealing the .mineral wealth of the Holy 
Land. The prime question was, Ifcere did King Solomon 
get the copper from i^ich King Hiram cast the vessels 
of the temple? • . ' 

The search he carried on was at .times at, great risk 
to his life. He found the trail on a blistering day 
/ in 193hx a few miles south of the Dead Sea, He discov- 
ered a ruin which the Arabs ^said their forefathers 
called "Copper Ruin. " Excavation soon unearthed 
crumbling furnaces and heaps of copper slag. Further 
south Glueck found seven other simlar ruiris, and the 
pottery in each of them iinmistakable belonged to the 
time of Solomon. 

Four summers later Glueck found in the southernmost 


Negeb near the shore of the Gulf of Akaba the great 
smelting site of Solomon ^s day^ the "Pittsburgh of Pale- 
stine," Glueck says that in finding it he literally 
"followed the Bible^s description." A technical study 
of these old mining sites made in 19h9 estimates that 
there is yet available at least 300^000 tons of metallic 

And what about the iron mentioned in the text from ; 
Deuteronomy? A few miles from -Beer sheba immense -black 
cliffs containing fifteen 'million tons of loX'Z-grade 
iron ore have been found. This cannot be mined profi-. 
tably nowj but could be if world prices .were to become. 
higher. More recently a mile-long outcropping of. ix*on 
ore, 60 to 75 pe3? cent pure has been., discovered. This 
can be readily and profitably mined novr. Tests are 
being to see how deep, the vein is, 
— Gosepl Herald^ ,1956 

• Najs 

We of the Salida congregation were again made to 
rejoice when another precious young soul^ namely: Ivy 
Jean Forrest^ was received into our fellowship by the 
ordinance of baptism^ on. Sunday^ January 17.— D.F.W." 


The Salida congregation have agreed^ the Lord 
willing^ to hold om-- Spring lovef east on April 23, 
this year. A hearty invitation and welcome is extend-^ 
ed to all the brethren and sisters and friends to 
attend. — D.S'.W. 

Vfe want to thank all of our subscribers who have so 
promptly renewed their subscriptions. Every effort is 
made to acknowledge this promptly by indicating the new 
expiration date on the outside of your mailing envelope. 

If you have sent your renewal and it is not so rec- 
ognized within reasonable time, please notify us so 
the necessary correction can be made.— Editor 

ho ' THE PIL&RIM - 

(Condensed from the lectures of C. G. Finney, 18U8) 

Editor's note:— Sanct if i cation is the last subject of Mr* 
Finney's lectiires, wiiioh we intend to republish at this time. 
This mil be in probably five or six instalments. We think 
that every one/vsho is interested in obtaining a fuller "under- 
standing ©f this iLinportant Biblipal doctrine mil find it both 
interesting and profitable to carefully read and study Mr. 
Finney* 8 lectures on this subject* 

May we further suggest to the leader, that if certain ex- 
pressions of the author seem obscure or too difficult for the 
moment, to not dispair of understanding his meaioing; but to 
read on and it mil be seen that he further amplifies his state- 
ments and clarifies his ter&s and meaning • It -will also be 
helpful in this respect to observe closely the sub-titles in 
each lecture an^ also bear in mind the title of the book from 
which the lectures are ta^en, idiioh is "Systematic Theology." 

In the former lectures, on Justification and Repentance, it 
has been shown that nothing is acceptable to God, as a condition 
of justification, and consequent salvation, but a repentance 
that implies a return to faill obedience to the moral law» It 
has also been shown, that regeneration and repentance consist 
in the heart *s return to full obedience, for the time being, 
to this law,. 

We have examined the do ct tine of depravity, ^d seen, that 
moral depi*avity> or sin, -consists in selfishness, and not- at all 
in the constitution of men; that selfishness does not consist in 
the involuntary appetites, passions, and propensities, but that 
it consists alone in the cc33?idttal of the will to the gratifi- 
cation of the propensities* ' 

We have seen that holiness consists, not at all in the con- 
stitution of body or mind; btit that it belongs, strictly, only 
to the will or heart, and consists in obedience of the will to 
the law of God, as it lies, revealed in the intelle-ct^ that it 
is expressed in one word, Irve; that this love is identical 
with the entire consecration of the whole being to the glory of 

We have seeaa that all true saints,, while in a state of acoep- 
ance with God, do actually render, for the time being, full 
obedience to all the known requirements of God; that is, they do 
for the time being their whole duty-^-all that God, at this time, 
requires of them. 

We have seen that this obedience is not independent of the 
Grace of God, but is induced by the indwelling spirit of Christ 
received by faith, and reigning in the heart. This fact will 
be more fully elucidated in this discussion than it has been • 
in former lectures. 


Sanotlfi cation is a term of frequent use in the Bible* Its 
simple and priicary meaning is a state of consecration to God. 
To sanctify is to set apart to a holy use — to consecrate a thing 
to the service of God. This is plainly both the Old and New 
Testament use of the term# The Greek- word HAGIAZO means to 
sanctify, to consecrate, or devote a person or thing to a par- 
ticular, especially to a sacred, use. This word is synonymous 
mth the Hebrew OUDASH* This last word is used in the Old 
Testament to express the same thing that is intended by the 
Greek IIAGIA20, namely, to consecrate, devote, set apart, sanc- 
tify, ptirify, make clean or pure. HAGIASMOS, a substantive 
from EAQIAZO, means sanctifi cation, devotion, consecration, 
purity, holiness. 

From the Bible use of these terms it is most manifest, — 

1. That sanctification does not imply any constitutional 
change, either of soul or body. It consists in the consecration 
or devotion of the constitutionals powers of body and soul to 
Goi, and not. in any change wrought in the constitution itself. 

2. It is also evident from the scriptural use of. the term> 
that sanctification is not a phenomenom, or state of the intel- 
lect* It belongs neither to the reason, conscience, nor under^ 
standing. In short, it cannot; consist in any state of the 
intellect whatever. All the states of this, faculty are purely 
passive states of mind; and of course, as we have abundantly 
seen, holiness is not properly predi cable of them. 

3. It is just as evident that sanctification, in the^ scrip- 
tural, and proper use of the term, is not a mere feeling of any 
kind,o It is net a desire, an appetite, an emotion, 'nor indeed 
any kind or degree of feeling* It is not a state or phenomenon 
of the sensibility. The states of the sensibility are, lifce 
those of the intellect, purely passive states of mind, as has 
been repeatedly shown. They of course can have no moral char- 
acter in t hems elves * 

4. The. Bible use of the term, when applied to persons, for- 
bids the understanding of it, as consisting in any involuntary 
state or attitudie of mind whatever. 

5. The inspired vjriters evidently used the terms which are 
translated by the English word sanctify, to designate a phenomr- 
enon of the will, or a voluntary state of mind. They used the 
term HAGI120 in Greek, and Z4iJDASH in Hebrew, to represent the 
act of consecrating one*s self, or anything else to the service 
of God, and to the highest well-being of the universe.. The 
term manifestly not only represents an act of the will, but an 
ultimate act or choice, as distinguished from a mere volition, 
or executive act of the mil. Thus the term rendered sanctified 
is synonymous "with loving God with all the heart, and our neigh- 
bor as ourselves. The Greek HA.GIASMOSj translated by the word 
sanctification, is evidently intended to express a state or 
attitude of voluntary consecration to God, a continued act of 

U2- ■ ■•■• THE PILGRIM 

consecration; or .a state of choice as distinct from ^ mere act 
of. choice, a standing and. contr cling preference of nrLndj a con- 
tinuous oommi ttal of. the mil to the highest well— "being of God. 
and the tmiverse* Sanotification, as a state differing from a 
holy act, is a standing,- ultimate intentioii, and exactly synon- 
yous mth a state of obedience, or confomaty to the law. of God. 
We hare repeatededly seen that the will is the executive or con— 
troling faculty of tiie,mnd« Sanctifioation consists, in the 
mH's devoting or consecrating itself and.tha whole being, all 
>VB are and have, so, far. as powers, susceptibilities, possessions 
are under the control -6f the will, tc-the; service of God, or the 
highest good of God and of being, Sanctifioation, then, is 
nothing more nor less than entire obedience, for the time being, 
to the- -moral law. . ' - ^ 

Sanctifioation may be entire in two senses: (l») In the 
sense of present, full obedience, or entire consecration to God; 
and (2.) In the sense of continued, abiding consecration or ^ 
obedience to God» Entire sanctifioation, when the term is used 
in ^ his: sense, consists of being established,, confirmed, preser- 
ved, continued in a state of sanctifioation or of entire coit-, 
secrationto. God. 

In this discussion, then, I shall use the i^erm entire sanc- 
tifioation to designate a state of confirmed,' and entire" conse- 
cration of body, soul, and spirit, or of the v;hole being to God— 
confirmed, not in the sense, (!•) That a soul entirely sanctified 
cannot sin, bMt. that -as a matter of fact, he does noir, and will 
not sin. (2.) Nor da -Luse the term entire sanctifioation as 
implying that the entirely sanctified soul is in no such danger 
of sinning as to (npt) need the thorough use and. application of 
all the means of "grace to prevent him from sinning^ and to secixre 
his. continued sanctificat ion., (3«) Ncr, ^o I mean hy entire 
sanctifioation, a state in which there will be no further strug- 
gle or TTarfare with temptation, or in which the Christian war- 
fare will cease. This certainly did not cease in Christ to the 
end.. of Jife-,- nor mil it- vdth. any being in .the flesh. (4.) Nor 
do 1118,6 the term as imj^lying a state, in vMch no further- p'rog— 
ress in holiness is possible., Ko ^uch state is, cr ever mil. 
be, possible to any creature, for the plain reason, that all 
creature.s must increase in knowledge; and increase of knoTaedge 
implies increase; of holiness in a holy being. The saints will 
doubtless grow in grace or holiness to all eternity. (5.) Nor 
do I^ mean by the term. entire sanctifioation, that the- entirely 
sanctified soul will no. longer need the cohtinual grace and 
indwelling. Spirit of Christ to preserve it from sin, and' to 
secure its continuance ,4n a state of consecration to God. It is 
aliasing that such men as .Dr.- Beecher and others should' suppose, 
that a state of entire consecration implies that' the entirely/ 
.sanctified soul no longer needs the grace of Christ to' preserve 
it. Entire sanctifioation, instead of implying no further de- 
pendence on the grace of Christ, implies a-- constant, appropriation 
of Christ by faith as the sanctifioation of the soul. 



The true question is. Is a state of entire, established, 
abiding consecration to God attainable in this life, in such a 
sense, that we may rationally expect or hope to become thus es- 
tablished in this life? Are the conditions of attaining this 
established estate in the grace and love of God, such that we 
may rationally expect or hope to fulfill them, and thus become 
established, or entirely sanctified in this life? This is tin- 
doubt edly the true and greatly imp orb ant question to be settled. 


1» It is self evident, that entire obedience to God's law is 
possible on the ground of natural ability. To deny this, is to 
deny that a man is able to do as well as he can. The very lang- 
uage of the law is such as to level its claims to the capacity 
of the subject, however great or small that capacity may be. 
"Thou Shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, with all 
thy soul, with all thy nlnd, and with all thy strength." Here 
then it is plain, that all the law demands, is the exercise of_ 
whatever strength we have, in the service of God. Now, as entire 
sanctifi cation consists in perfect obedience to the law of God, 
and as the law requires nothing more than the right use of what- 
ever strength we have, it is, of course, forever settled, that 
a state of entire sanctificati an is obtainable in this life, on ■ 
the ground of naturable ability. 

This is generally admitted by those who a-t^e called moderate 
Calvanists. Or, perhaps I shovild say, it generally has been 
admitted by them, though at present some of them seem inclined 
to give up the doctrine of natural ability, and to take refuge 
in constitutional depravity, rather than admit the attainable- 
ness of a state of entire sanctificati on in this life. But let 
men take refuge where they mil, they can never escape from the 
plain letter, and spirit of the law of God. Ivlark -^dth vmat 
solemn emphasis it says, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with 
all thy heart, with all thy soul, mth all thy mind, and with 
all thy strength." This is its solemn inaunction, whether it be 
given to an angel, a ms.n, or a child. An angel is bound to exer- 
cise an angel's strength; a man, the strength of a man; and a 
child, the strength of a child. It comes to every moral being 
in the universe, just as he is, where he is, and requires, not 
that he should create new powers, or possess other powers than 
he has, but that such as his powers are, they should all be used 
with the utmost perfection and constancy for God. 

2» The provisions of grace are such as to render its actual 
attainment in this life, the object of reasonable persuit. It is 
admtted, that the entire sanctifi cation of the church is to be 
accomplished. It is also admitted that this work is to be accom- 
plished "through the sanctificati on of the Spirit and the belief 
of the truth." It is also universally agreed, that this work 
must be begun here; and also that it must be completed before the 
soul can enter heaven. This then is the inquiry, — Is this state 
attainable as a matter of fact before death? — (To be continued) 




Reserving for subsequent consideration the persecu- 
tions and the heresies by xfhich the early Church was 
distiirbed^ we shall now pursue its more peaceful annals 
as far, as its establishment by the first Christian 
enperor. We have found it almost necessary to seapa- 
rate, and indeed ly to distinguish the events of 
the two ^first from those of the. third century, for 
nearly at this point. are we disposed' to place the first 
crisis in the internal history of the Church. It is 
true that the first operations of corruption are slow, 
and generally imperceptible, so th£lt it is not easy to 
ascertain the precise moment of its commencement. But 
a candid inquirer cannot avoid perceiving that, about 
the. end of the second and the beginning of the third 
centurjr, some changes had taken place in the ecclesias- 
tical- system which indicated a departure from its primi- 
tive purity. Indeed, such a state of society as that 
i^hich we have recently described could scarcely hope 
for permanent, endiurance, unless through a fundamental 
alteration 'in human nature and in the necessary course 
of human affairs. In addition to this, the very prin- 
ciples of Christianity prevented it frorn'reifiaining 
stationary; the spirit of the faith is active, penetra- 
ting, and progressii'^e; and thus, as it expajided itself 
in numerical extant -*as it rose in rank, in learing, in 
wealth— as it came inccontact with the people of all 
nations, and with all classes of the people, a great 
variety of htrnian passions and motives was comprehended 
by it, ^ich had no place in its early existence ♦ As 
it increased in the. number of converts, the zeal of 
brotherly love and ardenx. charity became more contracted, 
since it could no longer be universally exerted. As 
it rose in rank, it lost. that perfect equality among 
itfS members, which formed the very essence of its original 


and best character —false learning corrupted its simp- 
licity, and wealth undermined its morality. If it 
gained in prosperity and worldly consideration, it re- 
signed the native innocence and freshness of childhood. 

We are far from intending to assert that any sudden 
demoralization or violent apostasy from its first prin- 
ciples took place in the Church during the third century 
•^far from it — we feel even strongly assured that it 
still continued to embrace the great proportion of what- 
ever was truly virtuous and excellent in the Roman em- 
pire. But, inclosely attending to its history, we ob- 
serve that it becomes thenceforward the history of men 
rather than of things^ the body of the Church is not so 
much in view, but the acts of its ministers and teache27S 
ace continually before us. Vie read little of, the clergy 
of the two first centuries | they appear to have discharg- 
ed their pastoral duties with silent diligence and dis- 
interested piety. We learn their chara.cter, for the 
most part, from the effects of their labors; and we find 
its ample and indisputable record in the progress of 
their religion, and in the virtues of their converts. 

The progress of religion, indeed, continued, un^der 
easier circumstances, with equal rapidity; and we have 
reason to believe that, before the time of Constantine, 
it was deeply rooted in all the eastern provinces of 
the Roman, as well as in the Persian eiipire. Gibbon 
has candidly acknowledged his error in attributing the 
conversion of Armenia to the reign of. that eiiperor; and, 
perhaps, a more impartial reflection on the mission of 
Pantaenus, which we have no reason to believe fruitless, 
would have led him to doubt his own accuracy ifJaen he 
makes a similar assertion respecting Aethiopia, The 
light of Christianity had certainly penetrated, with 
varying splendor, aiiong the Bactrians, the Parthians, 
the Scythians,- Germans, Gauls, and Britons the Goths 
of Mysia and Thrace were converted by missionaries from 
Asia, and laid aside, on the reception of the faith, 
the primeval barbarity of their manners. 

While the Ch-urch of Antloch retained, after' the fall 
of Jerusalem, a nominal- supremacy among the Christians 
of the east, that of Rome continued to advance, among 


the T(g:^3t.ern .churches^ certain- vague a&sertions of 
authoxity. On one occasion indeed^- in "the conviction 
of a heretioal bishop^ Paxil of Samosata^ its claims 
appear to have been indirectly encouraged by the 'Emperor 
.Ai^relian; but they were not then acknowledged by any 
Ghristiai. Chiirch^ ardwere very warmly contested by 
X33cprian^' Bishop of Carthage. That prelate maintained 
/with -equal zeal and* truth the primitive equality of the 
chiirches.. If the" early Christians had for the most part 
^ derived the rudiemtns of their learning from Alexandria^ 
their charitable exertions had been principally- ahimated 
by. the wealth and munificence of Rome, These^ two " 
cities appear still to have maintained their respective 
advantages,- During the suspension of persecution.^ in. 
the, reign of Comraodus^ many great and opulent families 
were convertedj and we learn from an epistle of Corne- 
lius, Bishop of Rome that it was among his duties to 
provide for th^ maintenace of more than 1^00 widows 
and mourners. The excellences of the religion contri- 
buted, to its progress, and so rspid at this period was 
that- progress, that at the synod assembled at Rome' in 
the year 2^1 to pronounce upon the heresy (or schism) 
of Novatian, sixty bishops, -and a greater number of 
presbyters and deacons were present, though the rustic 
pastors "in the other districts held their separate 
meetings respecting the same question. Under such of 
the -emperors as were- not decidedly opposed to Ghristi-.'. 
anity, a considerable number of its professors were to 
be found, in the army and even at the coiirt, since their, 
profession did not exclude them from public preferment; 
.and their assemblage for divine worship, in certain 
houses set apart- for that- purpose, was permitted by the. 
connivance, of the civil magistrate. 

- Haddington* 3 History of tlie Church, 

The Old Testament records the preparation for the 
coming of Christ, And the gospels^ record the life and 
teaching of Christ* 

The 0. T, and Holy Spirit have a much larger place 
in the formation, of the N, T, than one would imagine 
from- the- reading of Catholic litature, — Quoted 


There* s a friend for little children 

Above the bright blue sky> 
A Friend "wftio never changes, 

Whose love will never die; 
Our earthly friends may fail us. 

And change with changing years, 
This Friend is alY/ays worthy 

Of that dear Name he bears. 

There's a rest for little children 

Above the bright blue sky, 
V^o love the blessed Saviour, 

And to the Father cry; 
A rest from every tu3fmoil. 

From sin and sorrow free, 
Where every little pilgrim 

Shall rest eternally • 

There's a home for little children 

Above the bright blue sky, 
"Where Jesus reigns in glory, 

A home of peace and joy; 
No home on earth is like it. 

Nor can m th it compare; 
For every one is h^py. 

Nor could be happier there » 

There's a song for little children 

Above the bright blue sky, 
A song that will not weary. 

Though sung continually; 
A song ^ioh even angels 

Can never, never sing; 
Tbey know not Christ as Saviour, 

But worship him as Xing^ 

There's a crown for little children 
Above the bright blue sky, 

ijid.all who look for Jesus 
Shall wear it by and by; 

All, all above is treasured. 
Aid found in Christ alone: 

Lord, grant thy little children 

To know thee as their omi, 

—Albert mdlane, 1859 


— i T3110THI— 

Timothy woiild .be barely thirty-five years old when 
Paul, who was nearly twice as old, wrote the B'irst 
Epistle to him. 

After Paxil's release, Timothy had been left by him 
in Ephesus to check erroneous doctrine,' while Paul 
went on to l^lacedonia'- (1:3-7) to visit his loved Philip- 
pians (Phil. 2:2l4)« Not knowing when he laay retui^n 
(3:l4>l5)j the apostle writes to instruct Timothy about 
a variety of matters. This was probably about 65* 

In the summary we hav.e the eminently Pauline salu- 
tation (1:1,2) and thanksgiving (1:12-17) at the outset. 
Then the subjects of public worship (ch. 2) officers 
of the chm^ch (ch, 3).> false teachers and asceticism 
(ch. U), widows and elders (eh, 5^), slaves, false teach- 
ers and covetousnes6 (6: 1-19) are discussedj and the 
letter closes with a charge and a "benediction. 

— Bible Encyclopedia 


In the province of Galilee, a large proportion of 
the population consisted of heathen elements, which 
gave it the name of '!Galilee of the Gentiles," among 
them being Phoenicians, /o^abians, Syrians, and Greeks. 
These people were not lacking in courage, but were 
given to change, sedition, and tumult. They were 
loyal to the temple and its services, but would be 
regarded religiously as mere liberal than the inhabit- 
ants of Judea. The provincial dialect. was corrupt, as 
compared with that of Judea, and because of their 
education and their intercourse with the heathen, 
Galileans were counted in a great degree as unclean, 
hence were despised by their brethren in the south. 

— Bible Encyclopedia 


VOL. 7 I4ARCH. i960 NO. ^ 

''Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain 
from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul." 1 Peter 2: 1 1 


Jesus J and shall it ever be^ 
A mortal man ashamed of Thee? 
Ashamed of Thee, l^om angels praise 
¥ncse glories shine thro' endless days? 

Asham'd of Jesus 1 sooner far 
Let evening blush to o>m a star; 
He sheds the beams of light divine 
0*er this benighted soul of mine. 

■ Ashamed of Jesus 1 just as soon 
Let midnight be ashamed of noonj 
»Tis midnight with my soul till He . 
Bright tiorning Star, bid darkness flee, . 

Asham'd of Jesus J that dear friend 
On whom my hopes of heaven depend 1 
No; when I blu^h, be this my shame 
That I no more revere His name. 

Ashamed of Jesus! yes, I may, 
VJhen I^ve no guilt to wash ax-jay; 
No tear to vjipe, no good to crave. 
No fears to quell, no soul to save. 

— Joseph Grigg 
Selected by Martha Baker, Maple, Ont. 


THE PILGRIM is a religious magazine published monthly by Daniel F. Wolf in the 
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Sample copies sent free on request. Address: THE PILGRIM/ Rt. 3, Box 1378, Modesto, Calif. 


For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not 
of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Hot of vrorks lest 
any man should hoast* Eph» 2: 8,9. 

That as sin hath reigned unte death, even so might grace 
reign through righteousness unto eternal life by Jesus 
Christ our Lord* Rom. 5: 21 

For the -wages, of sin is death; but the gift of God is 
eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. Rom. 6: 23. 

The outstanding truth revealed in. these doctrinal 
statements by the apostle Paul, is that salvation and 
eternal life is a GIFT of : Gcjdj, which of course implies 
that man who is the recipient cannot procure or obtain 
it by any means or power of his own. No man nor any 
thing that is lifeless can in any wise raake itself 
alive. Therefore it is meaningless to talk about the 
actions or works of any p^r^on or thing that is dead. 

But God is life and has the power to> give life to 
whomsoever he will: Wor as the Father, raise th up the 
dead, .and. quickeneth them; even Bo the .Son quickeneth 
whom he will.'» As the natural breath of life which is 
in man is given him of. God, .so. also eternal, life is a 
gift of God to man. And if it is of God^ and a GIFT, 
then those who seek eternal life must begin with God. 
Thus is establivshed. that part of our text vihich says, 
»^not of yourselves, it is the gift of God." This is 
why, when the Philippian jailor asked Paul and Silas 
''What must I do to be . saved?!' they answered, "Believe 
on the Lor4 Jesus Clirist, and thou shalt be saved. 
In other ^^ords, the first need of those who- are unsaved 
is to recognize the need of a Saviotir; for they cannot 
save themselves by any^means or power of their own. 

But our text says, . "For by grace are ye saved through 
faith. 'f Here we learn that the salvation which is the 
gift of God is granted to man through a merciful dis- 



position of God's love called ORAGE— upon a God^given 
condition- of response in man called FAITH ♦ ' "Not of ^ 
works, lest any man shotild boast*" If it" is God that 
-SA^ES, . then. Trtdiat Could any man -do that would save^-him-- 

. self? -And /if God saves upbn certairi conditions^ then 
what, man could ignore or violate those conditions^ and 
be saved? * ■- ^^ 

' . The next great truth" re^vealed in our' texts is that 
this great salvation of God Is given^ (a gift) through 
Jesus Christ our" Lord. Again this is God's chol-c^i- ]^ 
and work and not our own* If Jesiis Christ is'ouir- / * 
Saviour and Lord^ then we are subject to hii^, '-Anid' "••'-;•' 
the salvation that is through -him must be- on his ■'terms^ 
and we must obey him. All of this^ is implied THROUGH 
FAITH. \ ^ •• - - — ■ '^' ■ -^ 

.How- co\ild a sinner save himself? Could he slay ;a''" 
lamb or offer a bullock upon an alter and save himself? 
Cold he- save himself by binding a scarlet thread in; a' 
window? . Could he be baptized and save himself ? Could 
he vjash-the saints feet, or f^ed the poor,' or clothe 
the needy, or pay tithes, or sing Psalms, and save ■ 
himself? I4an cannot save hijnself at all,- for he has"' 
no power to do so. It is God- that saves — both present 
and future^ and brings us 'into -relationship with him 
through faith in Christ our' Lord "^and" Hade emer -By meafis, 

•which he has wisely ordained, Wen i4e btb thus saved' 
we belong 'td him— soul, body, and spirit /and are not 

.oixr own.- Vfe aire his children, and duty bound to obey 
hiS' -coiTHnandments- and do works of righteousness j not 
our own works, but his, 'as he commands and requires, ■ ' 
which includes many of the things mentioned above. 
Loving obedience -to the commandments of Jesus is that 
"faith which worketh by -love, "^ and is ccunted unto us ' 
for righteousnessV To knowingly disobey is eyideribe " 
of unbelief . 7 '• 

It was Paiil who wrote the texts ;quo ted in the be- 
ginning of this article^ and it was Paul who said in 
Romans 8, "If ys -live- after 'the flesh ye shall die, 
but if ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of 
the body, ye shall live," And, "Know ye not that to 
whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants 


ye are to whom ye obey | whether of sin tinto deaths or 
obedience unto righteousness?" And it was PatO. who 
said, ^^I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies 
of God, ^ that ye present, your bodies a living sacrifice, 
holy, acceptable vmto God, which is, your reasonable 

It is important to; observe that this is irjritten to 
^'brethren"; that isy those who have come into relation- 
ship with God by grace through faith in Christ, Those 
who are not in Christ, even though they may do the same 
works as brethren in Christ do, are not saved, because 
they refuse to -believe in the Lord Jesus Christ who 
alone can save them, , 

Thus, the grace of God that bringeth salvation 
hath appeared to all men. Teaching us that denying un- 
godly and "worldly lusts, we should live soberly, right- 
eously, and godly, in this present worldj Looking for 
that blessed hope , . and the glorious appearing of the . 
great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ: ^ttio gave him- 
self for us, that. he might redeem us from all iniquity, 
and. purify unto himself, a peculiar people, zealous of 
gbod works." Titua 2: 11-1-5. . 

How great, then, is the grace of God that brings 
salvation. How precious are the promises and the means 
by which we become partakers of the divine nature, having 
escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust. 
How we should thank and praise our God for all of this. 

But now the apostle says he would not "frustrate" 
the grace of God, And entreats that no man "fail" of. 
the grace of God^ 

And lastly we have the solemn warning by the apostle 
Jude, exhorting us to earnestly contend for the faith 
once delivered to the saints, "For there are certain 
men crept in unawares, who were before ordained to 
this condemnation, ungodly men, turning the grace of 
our God into lasciviousness, and denying the only Lord 
God, and oxir Lord Jesus Christ, — D.F,¥, 



NO, 3 
J, I. Cover - ; 'i • 

''And Jesus -t^en he had cried again with a loud voice 
yielded up the ghost. And behold the veil of the TempQa 
was rent in twain from the top 'to the bottom, and -the- 
earth did quake, and the rocks rent; And the graves 
were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept 
arose, and came out of the graves after his resijrrec- 
tion, and went into the holy city, and appeared unto- 
Many." hatt. 27:^0-53. • • '' " ■■'-•' 

Wonder words of life and revelationi ' Jesus died 
that we might livei His entrance into the abodes of 
death brought life and quickening power i Perhaps 
Elisha^s death and b^arial was someiihat a figure of this 
great power. ;"And Elisha died, and they buried him. 
And the bands of the Moabi.tes invaded the land at- the • 
ccming of the year. And it came to pass, as -thay^were 
burying a Pian, that, behold the y^ spied a band of men; ' 
and they cast the man into the sepulchre of "Elisha: 
and whsn the man was let down, and touched 'the bones of 
Elisha, he revived, and stood up on his feet," II Kings, 
13:20,21, There was virtue, and poiifer in Elisha 's body 
after deatli^ How much more our Saviour, who laiu aside 
his earthly body, x^hich did not see corruption (Act, 2: 
2?) and in a manner 'carried life and' virtue doi^Ti into 
the grave, and wonderful things begin to happen,— Before 
this there had been a great earthquake at Jesus' death-« 
life was entering into the bodies of the saints,— a 
moving underground work was taking place, because the 
body of Jesus lay in the grave— a kindred tie Jesus body, 
and the bodies of the saints I Vflio can fully fathom the 
profound,, and deep affection and tie binding believers 
together with their Lord? The body of Jesus was re- 
deemed, and reclaimed fi^om the grave; Ijjcewise the 
bodies of the saints that had been sleeping in the grave 
arose. The living eternal Redeemer in his rising from 
death, becane the divine magnet drawing from the grave 
the bodies of the saints alive forever more; and lest 
there be doubt of his divine pox^er, these living saints 


"went into the holy city, and appeared iinto many»^' 
Perhaps we have failed to grasp the f-oll significance 
of this! Yes, many disciples saw Jesus, and were so 
comforted mth his presence, and loving words, but it 
is easy to understand the thoughts might arise: Jesus 
lives, but what about me? To those who may have been 
thinking thus, perhaps they beheld in their very midst 
some of these resurrected ones, who gave witness to 
the resurrecting power of Jesus, happy days that 
the living faithful witnesses could be so near the 
border land of heaven that: (l). Angels came down 
and appeared by the tomb announcing Jesus' resurrection, 
(2). Jesus, fresh from our Heavenly Father's embrace, 
would be with them forty days. (3). That the living 
faithful disciples could meet with, and realize that 
mortal beings once like them, had now arose from the 
grave, and were living witnesses of Jesus' resurrecting 
power. We believe "when the disciples beheld Jesus as- 
cending up into heaven, that the cloud that received 
him out of their sight (Act 1:9) were the. holy angels, 
and "the spirits of just men made perfect,^' Hebp 12:23, 

Laying in the grave so long. 

Many since creation^ 
Bo mid by death hold fetters strong, 
• - ' Men from every nation. 

Laying in the darksome cell, 
. . Hopeless, helpless, mortals; 
Long in dark despair to dwell. 
Closed the prison portals. 

Ages, seasons come and go, . 

Prophets tell the story; 
Man of sorrows, grief, and woe,- 

Bringing heavens glory. 

See the light breaks over hills, 

Jesus comes from heaven; 
Hope the hearts of living fills, 

God the Son is given. 


Yes, he dies upon the cross. 

Darkness, sinners hiding. 
He our gain, and he our loss. 

In, the grave abiding* ".'.." 

Jesus enters dungeon gatesi, . \- .\/. 
Light. shines 'in the prison; 
. ■ Manj sleep in darksome fates, ■• '. :. 
Hear the Lord -is. risen i. '. ..' :..' ; 

Trembling "earthquakes shakes the gromad,^'; ... 
Grave yards burst asunder ; .' ' ';' 

They who sleep with Jesus found. 
Rising living' wonder* _' ". 

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Next: THE KESURiffiCTION OF TdE MhDj NO. lu . ' "' 


Christianity, xfhich, as the absolute religion, holds 
this central, ruling position in history, and on which 
depends the' salvation of the human race, exists not ^ 
merely as something subjective in^^single pious individu- 
als, but also as. an. objective, .organized, visible soc- 
iety, as' a KINGDOM OF. CmttST ON EARTH, ^ or' as a CHURCH, 
The church is in part a pedagogic institution to train 
men. forheaven, and as 'such destined, to pass away in its 
present forra when, thg salvation shall .be comi^leted; in 
• part the everlasting cominunion of the redeemed, ...both, on 
earth and in heaven. In the first view, as. a' visible - 
organization, it embraces all, who are baptized, whether 
in the Greek, or, Roman, or Protestant communion. It, 
contaj^ns^ .therefore,, m^hy h;^^ocrites ^nd unbelievers,, 
who mil never be entirely separated from :it, until the 
end,, of the .world. Hence, our Loj^d compares the kingdom 
of heaven, .Matt, 13., to a;fi^ld^ ,-rfi:ere wheat ^^nd tares 
groX'T together until the hai:vest; and "to a net, ^lich 
"gathers of every kind." .The true essence -of the church, 
however, the eternal communion of saints, consists only 
of the regenerate and C9nyerted^ who are united by a 
living faith with Christ, the head,, and, through him, with 


one another,- ■ - 

Though the church is thus a society of men^ yet it 
.is by no means on that account a production of men, 
called into existence by their own invention and will, 
like free-masonry, for instance, temperance societies, 
and the various political and lieterary asvsociations. 
It is founded by GOD himself through CHRIST, through 
his incarnation, his life, his sufferings, death and 
resurrection, and the outpouring of the HOLI GHOST, for 
his own glory and the redemption of the world. For 
this very reason, the gates of hell itself can never 
prevail against it. It is the ark of Christianity, out 
of which there is no salvation; the channel of the con- 
tinuous revelation of the triune God and the powers of 
eternal life. 

St. Paul commonly calls the church the BOiJY OF CHRIST, 
and believers the ilEMBSHS of this body. As a BOiJY in 
general, the chui^ch is an organic union of many members, 
x-^hich have, indeed, different gifts and callings, yet 
are pervaded by the same life-blood, r'-oled by the same 
end. This is set forth in a masterly and incomparable 
manner, particularly in the twelfth and fourteenth chap- 
ters of the first epistle to the Corinthians. As the 
body of GPIHIST, the church is the dwelling-place of 
Christ, in which he exerts all the powers of his thean- 
thropic life, and also the organ, through which he acts 
upon the world as Redeemer; as the soul manifests its 
activity only through the body, in which it dwells. 
The Lord, therefore, through the Holy Ghost, is present 
in the church, in all its ordinances and means of grace, 
especially in the word arjd the sacraments; present, in- 
deed, in a mystical, invisible, incomprehensible way, 
but none the less really, efficiently, and manifestly 
present, in his complete theanthropic person. "Where 
two or three are gathered together in my name, there 
am I, ''—not merely my spirit, or irgr word, or my influ- 
ence, but my PERSON- "in the midst of them" (Matt. 18:20). 
"Lo, I am with you"— the representatives of the whole 
body of saints— "alway, even unto the end of the world" 
(Matt. 28:20). Hence Paul calls tha church "the fulness 
of Him, that filleth all in all" (Eph. 1:23). 

THE PILGRIM .. , . ?-? 

We may justly say^ therefore, that the churoh^is^ the 
CONTINUATION of the life and work of Christ upon earth, 
though never,.- indeed, so far as men in their present 
state: are' concerned, -without' a. miixture of"sin and error* 
In the church, the LoM* is 'perpetually, born anew' in 'the 
hearts of believers through the- Holy Ghost, who" reveals 
Christ to us, arri. -appropriates 'his v6tk aod' merits" to . 
•the individual soul^ Irt 'the church the Lord speaks wads 
of truth and consolation to fallen- man ^ ' In' and through 
her he heals the sick, raises the. dead,, distributes the 
heavenly manna, gives himself, as spiritual food, to 
the hiingry soul. In her -are repeated his sufferings 
and death; and in her, too, are continually celebrated 
-anew his resurrection and ascension, and 'the outpom^ing 
of the Holy Ghost. In her militant state, like her ' ' 
Head In the days of his hurrdliation, she bears' the form 
o£ a servant* She is hated, despised, and iiiocked b^'"^ ' 
the ungodly world. But from this lowly form beams" forth 
-a divine radiance, *^ the glory 'as of the only-begotten, 
of the Father, full of grac§and truth,^' In her't'oomb 
mixst we be born again of incorruptable seed; from her 
breast must we be nurished imto spiritual life* For she 
is b'he Lamb's bride,' the dwelling of the Holy Ghost, 
the. temple- of- the living God^ ^^the pillar and ground of 
the truth ♦'■* Those ancient maxims: QUI EGGL&8Iah' NOIJ . 
NULLA SALUS, though -perverted by the church of Itome, 
and applied in a carnal and contracted ; sense to her0elf 
as. THE church, are yet perfectly correct, when vie refer 
them not simply to a particular de3iomination to' the holy 
catholic church, the mystical body of Christ, the Spiri- 
tual Jerusalem, "which is the mother "of us all" /.(Gal., . 
l4.;26)..- For since Christ, as Redeemer, is to be f o.uiid 
neither in Heathenism, nor in Judaism, nor ihlslamism, 
■but; only in. the church, the f\indamental proposition: 
"Out .of Ghris^t no salvation," necessarily includes 'the ' 
other: "No salvation out of the church." This, of . 
cour'se, does not imply, that mere external connection 
with it is of itself" -sufficient for salvation, but 
simply, that salvation is not divinely guaranteed out 
of the Christian church. There are thousands of chiurch 


members, "who are not vitally united to Christ, and who 
will, therefore, be finally lost; but there are no real 
Christians any where, who are not, at the same time, 
members of Clirist's mystical body, and as such connected 
with some branch of his visible kingdom on earth. 
.Church-membership is not the PRINCIPLE of salvation— 
which is Christ alone— but the necessary CONDITION of 
it; because it is the divenly-appointed means of bring- 
ing the man into contact with Christ and all his bene- 


The church is not to be viewed as a, thing at once 
finished and perfect, but as a historical fact, as a 
hiiman society, . subject to the laws of history, to gene- 
sis, growth, development. Only the dead is done and . 
stagnant. All created life, even the vegetable, and ^ 
especially animal and human life, though always. in sub- 
stance the same, is essentially motion, process, cons- 
tant change, imceasing transition from the lovxer to the 
higher. Every member of the body, every faculty of the 
soul exists at first merely potentially or virtually^ 
and attains its full proportions only by degrees; just 
as the tree grows from the germ, unfolding first the, 
root and trunk, then the branches, leaves, blossoms, and 
fruit. The same law holds in the case of the new man 
in Christ. The believer is at first a child, a babe in 
Christ, born of water and of the spirit, and rises gradu-, by the faithful use of the means of grace ^ unto 
perfect m-anhood in Christ, the author and finisher of 
our faitii, until this spiritiual life reaches its per- 
fection in the resurrection of the body unto life ever- 
lasting. As the ch'orch is the organic whole of indivi- 
dual believers, it must likewise be conceived as sub- 
ject to the same law of development, or, to use. the 
expressive figure of the Savioiur, as a grain of mustard- 
seed, which grows at last to a mighty tree, overshadow- 
ing the world. The church, therefore, like every indi- 
vidual Christian, and, indeed, like Christ himself in 
his human nature, must be viewed, under her historical 
form, as having her infancy, her childhood, her youth, 
and her mature age. 


To avoid misunderstanding^ however^ we must here make 
an important distinction. The churchy in its idea^ or 
viewed objectively in Christ, in whom dwelleth all the 
fulness of the Godhead bodily, who is the same yester- 
day, to-day, and forever, is from the first complete and 
unchangeable. So also the. revealed word of Christ is 
eternal truth and the absolute rule of faith ard pract- 
ice, which the Christian world can never transcend. 
The doctrine of an improvement on Biblical Christianity, 
of an advance on the part of men beyond revelation, or 
beyond Chr himself, is entirely rationalistic and 
unchristian. Such a pretended improvement were but a 
deterioration, a return to the old Judaism or Paganism. 

But from this ida of the church in the divine .mind, 
and in the person of Christ, wejnust distinguish its 
ACTUAL r-lANIFESTATION on eai'th; from the . objective reve- 
lation itself we must discriminate the SUBJECTIVE APPRE- 
AT A GIVEN TIMC, This last is progressive. .Humanity 
at large can no more possess itself at once of the ful-* 
ness of the divine life in Christ, than the individual 
Christian can in a moment become a. perfect saint. This 
complete appropriation of life is accomplished only by 
a gradual process, involving much xrouble and toil. The 
church on earth advances from one degree of puxity, 
knowledge, holiness, to another; struggles victoriously 
through the opposition of an ungodly world; overcomes 
innumerable foes within and without; surmounts all obst- 
ructions; survives all diseases; till at last, entirely 
purged from sin and error, and passing, at the general 
resurrection, from her militant to her trixinphant state, 
she shall stand forth eternally complete. This whole 
process, however, is but the full actual unfolding of 
the chur-ch which existed potentially at the outset in 
Christ; a process by which the Redeemer's Spirit and life 
are completely appropriated and impressed on every fea- 
ture of humanity. Christ is thus the beginning, the 
middle, and the end of the entire history of the church. 

By Philip Schaff , 1868 



Homes are divinely ordained foimtains of life. It 
is not by accident that men live in families rather 
than solitarily. The human race began in a family, and 
Eden was a home. The divine blessing has ever rested 
upon nations and comraunities just in the raeasui^e in. 
which they have adhered to these original institutions 
and have kept marriage and the home pure and holyj . and 
blight and curse have come just in the measure in i^ich 
they have departed from these di\nLne models, dishonoring 
marriage and tearing down the sacred walls of home# 

Back of the home lies marriage. The wedding day 
throws its shadow far down the future j it may be, ought 
,to be, a shadow of healing and benediction. 

In a tale of medieval English life, a maiden goes 
before the bridel party on their way to the church, 
strewing flowers in their path. This was meant to sig^- 
nify that their wedded life should be one of joy and 
prosperity. Almost universally, wedding ceremonies and 
festivities have some feature ox siii^iilar significance, 
implying that the occasion is one of gladness. In some 
coun'tries, flowers are worn as bridal wreaths, in some, 
they are woven into garlands for the waist. All these 
and similar bridal custom.s indicate that the world re- 
gards the wedding as the crowning day of life, and 
jfiiarriage as an event of the highest felicity, an occa- 
sion for tte most enthusiastic congratulations. Yet not 
always are these happy prophecies fulfilled. Sometimes 
the flowers wither and the music grows discordant and 
the wedding peals die away into only a memory of glad- 
ness. It ought not to be so. It is not so when the 
marriage has been true, and when the wedded life is 
ruled by love. 

Mai-^riage is inteixled to bring joy. The married life 
is meant to be the happiest, fullest, -purest, richest 
life. It is God»s own ideal of completeness. It was 
when He said it was not good for man to be alone that 
woman was made and brought to him to supply what was 
lacking. The divine intention, therefore, is that 
marriage shall yield happiness, and that it shall add 


to the fullness of the life of both husband and wife) 
that neither shall lose, but that both shall gain* If 
in any case it fails to be a blessing and to yield jpy^ 
and a richer, fuller life, the fault cannot be with 
t.he institution itself , but with those yho under its 
* shadow fail to ' fulfill its conditions* 

The causes of failure may lie back of the marriage 
altar, for many are united in matrimony who never should 
have entered upon such a union j or they may lie in the 
life after marriage for many irjho might attain to the 
very highest happiness in wedded life fail to do so 
because they have not yet learned the secret of living 
happily together . v. 

To guard against the former mistake the sacred char- 
acter and the solerfin responsibilities of marriage should 
be well understood and thoughtfully considered by all. ;. 
who would enter upon it. Marriage is a di. vine ordinance. 
It was pai^t of God's original intention lAhen He made-.;' 
man. It is not a" mere human arrangement^- something . .; ; 
that sprang up in the race as a- convenience along the 
history of the ages* It was not deviaed by any earthly 
law-giver. It is' not a habit into which men fell in 
the early days. The stamp -o^f divine intention aiad or- 
dination is upon 'it. •' : ,.:. 

■-" - — Herold der Walirheit, 195-0: ■■; -.;;: 


Parents run the risk of losing the love of their. 
children, who put aside their .trivial questions as of 
no consequence... An interrogation point symbolizes the 
life of childhood 5 "why", and "what" are the keys with 
which; it \ml.ocks the tl^easury of the x^rld. The boy^s 
numberless questions often seem trivial, but the wise ■ 
parent will never turn them off unanswered if he can 
help it. It is his rich opportunity of teaching. He 
is met half way, and there is all the difference between 
impressing the truth on an eager mind and an uninterest- 
ed one. The little fellow helping you at your work and 
pelting you with endless questions, may learn as much in 
a half -hour there as in a week when the body is a prison- 
er in the schoolroom, and his thoughts are out of doors. 

— A selection in Jan. I96O Vindicator 



The province of conservatism is to preserve that 
which is established* It is therefore closely to both 
radicalism and liber alism^ and oscillates between the 
two with the passing of time and the change of emphases. 
For just as luKuries of today tend to be-come the necess- 
ities of tomorrow^ likewise the reforms of yesterday 
are the heritages of today. All this means that the 
field soldiers of thepast are wont to become passive 
guards of the present. The flaming evangelist is like- 
ly to wind up as a "money-raiser," and the evangelistic 
pastor completes his coiirse posing as "a teacher*" 
Lay Ciiristians vjho once fasted and prayed "until the 
fire fell" come to the place where they contend for 
detailed rules of thximb regarding pet moralities and 
call this "asking for the old paths." But in all such 
instances J conservatism has defeated its own purpost?, 
and presents a spectacle much like that of the miner 
who stood guard over his hoard of gold until he himself 
starved to death. 

The apostle Paul does indeed comiiiend m.oderation* 
but manifestly this was a call for .use against abuse 
in things permissible— like eating an.d drinking, work- 
ing and, playing, coming apart. and engaging in social 
contacts. It cannot apply, to morals; for whoever is 
moderately honest is dishonest, whoever is moderately 
truthful is a liar, whoever is moderately right is wixng. 
It cannot apply to vital Christianity, for Christ dis- 
tinctly said, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with 
all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy 
mind, and with all thy strength." It is, then, true 
of religion in the positive sense, as of morality in 
the negative sense, that one who is religious with re- 
servations is really irreligious* That love which is 
given to God just because it has found no object else- 
where is unacceptable. It was that love which made 
Isaac— the only son— its sacrifice that brought Abraham 
into the circle of "friends of God," And it was the 
gift which was so large that it left no remainder that 
brought the widow to the Master's mention. 


Sometime attachment to an old building hinders the 
construction of a new and needed house of worship^ 
sometimes devotion -to an outmoded organisation blocks 
the road to accomplishment; sometimes reverence for 
a historic, form co.uses.a contagion of death ^to spread; 
sometimes regard for tradition may lead to the cruci- 
fixion of the just, as it did once before when it nail- 
ed Jesus to the cross. In all such cases, Conservatism 
defeats its purpose. The injuction of Paul is, ."Prove 
all things; hold fast that which is good," In the 
test of time we discover values that are timeless; to 
these, let us hold fasti .— Gospel Herald, 19^1. 


Vfe of the Salida congregation again rejoiced to 
gather at the river on Sunday Feb. 7, where a young 
Iran, namely: Philip Chambers was received into, our.. :' 
fellowship by the ordinance of baptism.— D.F.W* 


The Salida congregation have agreed/ the Lord 
willing, to hold our Spring lovefeast on April 23, 
of this year. A hearty invitation and welcome is., 
extended to all the brethren and sisters and friends 
to attend. — D.F.Wo ".'; 


The wise woman of Tekoah her appeal to senti- 
ment rather than to righteousness, therefore the re- 
turn of Absolom was the prelude to a greater disaster 
than had yet befallen David. Many imagine that God 
acts as the king did, and brings back his banished 
without the settlement of the sin question. But his 
holy nature forbids this. He has indeed devised means 
to recover the sinner, but it has been at the cost of 
the life of his own beloved Son, our Lord Jesus Christ. 
Through his expiatory work on the cross God can be just 
and the justifier of him that believeth on Jesus.— Sel, 


(Condensed from the lecttires ,.f C. G». Finney, 18U8 

- ■- ''^' BIBLE ^GTMOT*'. 

1 come n»w to consider .the question directly,^ and -wholly as 
a BiBle questionV ^ether entire is anot if i cation is in such a 
sense; attainable in this life, as to ijialcfe its attainment an"" - 
p^jeot:- of rational persuit, 

•' - It is evident from the fact, expressly stated, that abundant 
means are provided for the acccmplishment of this end* Eph. 
4: 15-J.9, "He that descended is the same also that: ascended Up- 
far above all heavens, that he riijight fill all things* ind he 
gaVe s ome ap o s 1 1 e s j and s ome , prophet s ; and s ome , evangel i s t s ; 
and some, pastors and teachers; f or ^th^ perfecting of the saints, 
for the„ work of the ministry, for the edif;^ng of the body of 
Christ; till we all come to the unity of the faith, and of the 
knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the meas- 
ure of the stature of the fulness of Christ;^ that we henceforth 
be no more children tossed to and fro, and cari-ied about with 
every, wind of doctrine, by the sleight of men, and cunning 
oraf tiiie SB ," " whor eby . t hey li e i n ' wai t to, decei ve ; but sp eaking 
the truth'in love, 'may 'grow up into hiciiii ail things^ :which 
is the hqad^ .$ven Christ; ,from whom the "vvhole body fitly 'joined 
together and compacted hy that ?/hich every joint supplieth, 
acoording-"to- the effectual working^' in' the" of every part* 
maketh increase of the body , unto, the edifying of itself in 
love»** Upon this passage I remark:-- 

(l.) Tja^t what is here spokexx is plainly apiDlioaable o2ily - 
in this, life* It -is' in this life that the apostles, evangelists, 
prophets, and teachers, exercise -their ministry* ■ These means 
therefore are applicp,ble, and b,o far as we know, only applicable 
in this life. " • • •• •'„ ^^ ^ 

(2.) The apostle heremanifestly teaches, that these means 
are designed and adequate* 'f "or perfecting the "v^ole church as 
the body of Christ, "till.we all come in the unity of the faith 
and of the knowledge of the Son bf God, unto the measure of the 
stature, of- the- fulness- of Christ,". IJow observe, — 

(3.) These' means are for the perfecting of the saints, till; 
the Tflftiole chitroh, as a. perfecst man,- "has come to the Mfasure 
•f the stature of the -ftil&ess of Christ w'^-"-3iHhia is liot en- 
tire sanotifi cation, what is? That this -is- to take JE^Iace in 
this world is evident from what follows*- For/the^apostte adds, 
"that we henceforth be no more tossed to andjfro,:: and carried 
about with every wind of doctrine, hy the sleight'- of men,, and \ 
cunning craftiness, whereby they lie in Wait to deceiveV^ "/ 

:, H*) : I* should be observed-,, that this is a . very strong. :v. - . 
passage in support of the doctrine, inasmuch as it asserts that 


abundant means are provided for the sanctifi cation of the church 
in this life. And as the -whole includes all the parts, there 
must be suffioieAt provision for the sanctifi cation of each 
individual. ^ 

(5») If the work is ever effected, it is by these means* 
But these means are used only in this life. Entire sanctifica— 
tion then. mast take place in this life* 

(6«) If this passage does. not teach entire entire sanctifi- 
cation, such a state is nowhere mentioned in the Bible. And if 
believers are not here said to be wholly sanctified by t hese ■ 
means, and of course in this life, I know not that it is any- 
where taught that they shall be sanctified at alj.* 

But let us look into some of the promises. It is not my . 
design to examine a great number of scripture promises, but 
rather to show, that those which I do examines fully sustain . 
the positions I have taken.. 

(l,) I begin by referring you: to the law of God, as given 
in Deut. 10: 12. "And now, Israel, Tft±iat doth the Lord require 
of thee, but to fear the Lord thy God, to walk in all his ways, 
and to love him, and to serve the Lord thy God with all thy , " 
heart, and with all thy soul?" Upon this passage I remark:— .- 

It professedly sums up the whole duty of man, to God— to . 
fear and love him with all the heart and all the. soul. 

Although this is said of Israel, yet it is equally true of 
all men* It is equally binding upon all, and is all that Go^ 
requires of ^''^y jns.n in regard to himself. 

Continued obedience to this requirement is entire, sanctifi- 
cation, in the sense in which I use the tearms. 

See Deut. 30: 6. "4nd the Lord thy God will oircumoise: 
thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the Lord thy 
God with all thine heart, and mth all thy soul, that thou 
rcayest live." Here we have a promise couched in the saLme.lang— ■ 
uage as the cdixmand just quoted* Upon this passage I remark:— 

It promises just what the. law requires. If that which the 
law requires is a state of entire sanctifi cation, then this is 
a promise of entire sanctifi cation. As the conmand is univer- 
sally binding upon all and applicable to all, so this promise * 
is universally applicable to all who will lay hold upon it.. 
Faith is an indispensible condition of the fulfillment of this 
promise. It is entirely irnpossible that we should love God 
with all the heart, without confidence in him. God begets love 
in man in no other way than by so revealing himself as to inspire 
confidence, that confidence which works by love.. 

This promse is designed to be fulfilled in this life. The 


language and connection imply this: "I mil circTimcise thy heart, 
' and the heart of thy seed, to love the Lord thy God -with all 
thy heart, and mth all thy soul*" This in some sense takes 
place in regeratioa,' but more than simple regeneration seems 
here to be promised. It is plain. I think, that this promise ■ 
relates to a state of mind, and not merely to an exercise. 

This- promise -as it respects the churchy at s ome • day,- mast be 
absolute and certain • So that Gcd mil undoubtedly, at some'' 
period, beget this state of nxind in the church*. But to what 
particular individuals and generation mil be , fulfilled i "must 
depend upon their faith in the promise. •- ' 

See Jer. 31: 31-34: "Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, 
that I mil make a new ooTenant "t'dth the house of Israel, and 
with the house of Judah; not according to the covenant that I 
made'Tdth their fathers, in the day that I took them by the 
hand, to bring them , out of the land of Egypt, (which my covenant 
they brake,, although I^as a hiisbahd uiito them, ; saith the Lor^J ) 
but this shall be the covenant that* I will make with the house 
of Israeli After those days saith the Lord, I will put my law 
in their inward^ -parts, and -write it 'in their^-hearts; .and-X will 
be their Gcd, and they shall be my people. ' Aad'they shall 
•-teach no more every man his neighbor, and every man his brother, 
saying, Xnow the Lord;- for they shall all knowme, from tl^e 
least of them unto the greatest of -them,, saith the Lord; 'for' I 
will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no 
more*'^- Upon this passage I remark: — 

(1.) It was to become due, or the time i^hen its fulfillment 
might'be claimed and expected, was at the advent of Christ. ' 
This is' unequivocally -settled settled in Heb. 8r 8--12, where 
this passage is quoteci at length, as being applicable to the " 
gospel day. 

(2,) A permanent state or entire sanctification is plainly 
implied in this promise. The reason for setting aside the first 
covenaiit was, that it was broken: ^^Ibloh my covenant they brake." 
One grand' design-' of the new covenant "is, that it shall not be 
broken, for then 'it woxild be no better than the first. . Pem^n- 
ency is implied in the fact, that it is to be engrarreh in 'the 
heart. Permanency is implied in the assertion,- that God' will 
remember their sins no more. In Jer. 32: 39,40, "where the same 
promise is in substance repeated, you mil find it ^pr^ssly 
stated, that the covenant is to ''everlasting," and' that he will 
so "put his fear in their hearts', that they shall not depart ' 
fromi-him." Here permanency is as expressly promised as it can. 

be. * ' '' - ■ ^ - "" • =■ -^ ; :^ ' ' , '^ ■ . ' 

It should be understood, that this promise was made to the 
Christian church,' and not at all to the Jewish church, (^^^^.t -^v 
is, it could not be expected until Christ, would come and "take ^ 
their sins and the Holy Ghost given— the Christian church was 
founded and established of a faithful remnant of Jews cr Old 


Covenant Israelites*— Editor) The saints under the old dispensa- 
tion had no reason to expect the fulfillment of this and kindred 
promises to themselves, because their fulfillment -was expressly 
deferred xmtil the coinmencement of the Christian dispensation* 

# • • • • # • 
I mil next examine the in I Thess,* 5: 23,24; *^j!uid 
the very God of peace sanctify you -wholly 5 and I pray ^od your 
whole spirit and soul, and body, be preserved blameless unto 
the coming. of our Lord Jesus (irist* Faithful is he that calleth 
you, who also will do it»*' Upon this I remark:-'— 

(l.) It is admitted that this is a prayer for, and a promise 
of,- entire sanctifi cation, 

(2.) The very language shows that both the prayer and the 
promise refer to this life, as it is a prayer for the sanctifi- 
cation of the body as Vfell as the soul; also that they might be 
preserved, not after, but unto the coining of our Lord Jesus 

(3») This is a prayer of inspiration to which is annexed an 
express promise that God will do it* 

(4o) Its fulfillment is, from the nature cf the case, condi- 
tioned upon otir faith, as sanctifi cation without faith is natur- 
ally impossible. 

(5«) Now if this promise, with those that have already been 
examined, does not, honestly interpreted, fully settle the ques- 
tion of the attainability of entire sanotificaticn in this life, 
it is dificult to understand how an^ijhing can be settled by an 
appeal to scripture. 

That this state may be attained in this lif e^ I ar^ue from 
the fact, that provision is made against all the occasions of 
sin* Men sin only when they are tempted, either by the world, 
the flesh, or the devil, imd it is expi^essly asserted, that in 
every temptation, provision is made for our escape. Certainlyj 
if it is possible for us to escape without sin, under every 
temptation, than a state of entire and permanent sanctifi cation 
is attainable. 

Full provision is made for overccnnng the three great enemies. 
of our souls, the world, the flesh, and the devil. 

(l.) The world — '*This is the victory that overoometh the world, 
even our faith.'* "Mio is he that overcometh the world, but he 
that believeth that Jesus is the Christ." 

(2,) The flesh— If ye walk in the Spirit, ye shall not fulfill 
the lusts of the flesh*" 

(3.) Satan — "The shield of faith shall quench all the fiery 
darts of the wicked." And, "God shall bruise Satan under your 
feet shortly." (To be continued*) 




"'ORIGEN, 'The best history of the Church of Alexan- 
/dria during the first half of the third century^ is 
f ur^nished by the life of Origen* That extraordinary 
per so n, the raost eiiiinent among the early fathers^ was 
a native of Egypt, the son of one Leonidas, who suffer- 
ed martrydom in the year 202, Vfeen in prison he re- 
ceived -an epistle from his .son, of which one sentence 
only is preserved to us, 'Take heed, father, that, you 
do not- change your mnd. for our s alee, * Origen was - 
then about seventeen years old— his religious instruc- 
tions he had received fxt^jn Clemens Alexandra inus, his 
philosophical lore from Arrmionius Saccas, ana such pro- 
ficiency had he made in both those studies, tiiat he vfas 
called to preside oyer the Catechetical .School of ' 
Christianity at the age of eighteen. He filled, that, 
office for nearly thirty yeai^s, and discharged its 
duties X'^ith zeal and genius so distinguished, Irdth such 
fruitful diligence of composition, such persuasiveness 
of oral eloquence, ■ as to make it a- question whether' "■ • 
our religion was ever so much advanced, in point of 
numbers, by the mere intellectual exertions of any 
other individual. Ke m.erited the honor of persecution, 
arid had the double fortune to be expelled from his ' 
chair and country by the Jealousy of .the Bishop Deme- 
trius, and to be tortured in his old age by the bruta-. 
lity of a Homan emperor. The works of Origen e>±Libit 
the operation of a bold and comprehensive nand, burning 
with-- religious warmth, unrestrained by any low preju- 
dices or inttsrests, and sincerely bent on the attain- 
ment of truth. In the main plan and outline of his. 
course, he seized the nsans best calculated to his 
object, for his principal labors" x^ere directed to the 
collection of correct copies of the Holy Scriptures, 
to their strict and faithful, translation, to the ex- ' 
planation of their numerous difficulties. In -the. "two - 
first of these objects he was singularly successful j * 


but in the accomplishment of the last part of his noble 
scheme the heat of his imagination and his attachment 
to philosophical speculation carried him away into 
error and absurdity; for he applied to the explanation 
of the Old Testament the same fanciful method of alle- 
gory by T/iiich the Platonists were accustomed to veil 
the fabulous history of their gods. This error, so 
fascinating to the loose imagination of the East, was 
rapidly propaga^ted by numerous disciples, and became-' 
the foundation of that doubtful system of theology, . 
called Philosophical or SCHOLASTIC. . ' ~ ' ': 

The fame of Origen was not confined to his native 
country, or to the schools of . philosophy, or to the 
professors of the Faith. Maiomaea, the mother of the 
Emperor Alexander, sought a conference with him in 
Syria; he was held in high repute at Rome; his personal 
exertions were extended to Greece, and among the most 
fortunate efforts of his genius we may be allowed to 
mention, that when a numerous s^niod was tx^ace convoked 
in Arabia on two occasions of heresy, Origen, who was 
present by invitation, was twice sucQessful in convin- 
cing hlvS opponents. His school gave birth to a number 
of learned men, Plutarch, Serenus, Eeraclldes, Heron, . 
who proved the sincerity and multiplied the followers 
of their religion, by the industry vath which they 
adorned life, and the constancy with which they quitted 

TERTULLMN. The Latin Ch-orch of Carthage attained 
little celebrity till the end of the second century, 
when it was adorned by Tertullian and we find that, 
about that, period, Christianity, vjhich had already scat- 
tered its blessings along the banks of the Nile, and 
into the adjacent deserts, also made great, progress 
along the northern coast of Africa. Tertullian is des- 
cribed by Jerome as *a man of eager and violent temper;* 
and he appears to have possessed the usual vice of such 
a temperament— inconstancy «. The same is the character 
of his >jritings; they contain some irregular eloquence, 
much confidence of assertion, and a mixture of good with 
very bad reasoning. He wrote many tracts against here- 
tics, and then'^ adopted the opinions of the least ration- 


ai of all heretics, the i^iontanists^. But in spite, of 
many impeffectioripi' his genius, his i^eal, and his in- 
dias try place him at the, head of the Latin fathers of 
that period; his moral writings must have. been eminently 
serviceable to converts yio had been educated with no 
fixed principles of morality; and his 'Apology* is -. 
"amqng the most valuable moniHnents of early Christianity* 
He appears to have' been made a presbyter- of the -Chur^ih 
of "Carthage about 192 A^u, , at the age of forty-five. 
His secession from the Church may have taken place 
seven years afterwards, and some of his most valuable 
works were probably composed d^jiring the period of. his 
heresy* ■ • ^ 

' The fafiie of Tertullian was succeded in the same • • 
Chiir'ch, but riot surpasse , by that of Cyprian, an 
Afri'c^ah and a heathen, ^o wag' converted to Christianity 
late in life, and presently raised to the see of Carth- 
age about the year' '250 • It is said that. he was exalted 
to that dangerous hohor rather by the popular voice of 
the Church than by his ox-^jn inclination: it is certain 
that, after a very short and distui^bed possession of it, 
he suffered niai-^tyrdom with great fortitude in the reign 
of Valerian. An interesting and probably faithful ac- 
count of his sufferings v/ill be" found in a later page., 
*'" — Waddington^s History of the Church. 


Through the valley of the shadow, 
I could feel the Saviour's hand. 
Leading me, though dark the shadows 
That border on the Heavenly land^. 

He lad me through the deep> dark valley. 
Brought me back to pastures green,.' 
Brought me back to loVed ones, praying 
"Not my will but thine be done, » 

I could feel thos^ prayers ascending,' 
For I. know the prayers of love, 
Lifted- me with their petitions 
To the Father's throne above. 

THE PHiGRm . 71 

I prayed ■unto the Heavenly Father 
To make me, submissive to His will. 
To ^diat wo\ild best fulfill His ptirpose. 
But to teep me near Him still* 

Jind i thank Him f or Hia goodness, ' 
For the health. He has restored, ... 
For the hands that with 'Him labored. 
Helped Him to fulfill His word. ^" "; 

And now, "0 Father lead me onward. 
Help me to closer walk with Th6e," 
Mbj ir^ cross, my faith but strengthen, '; 
Sufficient is His grace for me« * 

— Annie Baker, Maple, Ont* * 

.Mien the heavenly hosts shall gather. 

And the heavenly courts shall ring 
With the rapture of the ransomed 

And the new song they shall sing; 
Thoiigh they come from every nation, ' 

Every kindred, every race*. 
None can ever learn that music 

Till he knows God*s pardoning grace. 

All those vast eternities to come 

Will never be too long 
To tell the endless story , 

And to sing the endless song:— 
»^Untb Him that loved us^" 

And who "loosed us from^ our ^in"— 
We shall finish it in heatren. 

But 'tis here the words begin. 

— Selected 


/ ■ -- BIBLE STUDY " - 
.:..: . • -II TIMOTHY-. ' ^: \ 

Second Timothy being the last epistle that Paul 
wrotSjf he -wrote it to Timothy and e^cpressed his love 
to him. It was X'jritten about. 6? or 68 A,D» Paul 
was (indirectly) one of the victims of the great fire 
of the city of Rome, in which about half of the city 
was burned. In his last imprisonment he told of iiis 
living in the expectation of being "offered up'*. But 
through it all is the note of Christian triim5)h. He 
exhorted him of different things to look for in the 
futiire. He exhorted him to constancy and persever- 
ence^ and that also tl:ie "foundation of the Lord is 
sure." He could foresee the wickedness in the last 
days and described the enemied of the truth. 

In chapter 2 he tells of the sure foundation and 
of some of the heresies that were in the church 
already at that time; that some were teaching that 
the resurrection was already past^ and overthromng 
the faith of some. 

In chapter 3 we are told of the perils of the 
last days; how men shall depart from the truth into 
worldly vanities and terrible wickedness and corrupt 

In chapter h Paul tells of the nearness of his 
death and gives a charge and final direction to 
Timothy. He also gives us hope in the resurrection 
and future life ^jhen he says^ "For if we be dead with 
hiju we shall also live with him, " 

Fill in the missing words: 

Hold the form of words, which thou hast 

heard of me, in faith and ^which is in Christ Jesus, 

Yea and who will godly in Christ Jesus shall 

suffer , 

--Gerald Martin, Goshen, Ind, 


VOL, 7 APRIL, i960 NO. h 

""Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangiers and pilgrims, abstain 
from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul," 1 Peter 2: 1 1 


Do ■ you know why angels - rolled the stone away, _'^ . 
From the placQ, where the crucified Saviotir layj ',"' 
He would not have. needed the angelic pair. 
For no stone on earth could have kept him there. 

No stone could hold the Saviour of earth. 
Mien He wo^ald arise, ..resurrected,, come forth; 
No angels were needed to roll the huge stone. 
For He could come forth, and could do it alone^. 

DonH you think it was fqr us they came do>^^, •', .7../ 
From heaven to earth ori that first Easter morn? 
So His ovm niight be siire that the one tlriey had Jcaown, 
Vfes not man alone <j but was God's o\m loved Son, ", 

And" this was a day. long promised - to ^ man. 

All down through the ages since the first man did sin. 

So angels of heaven must come -to the earth, . 

-Ijust as they, caine doi-ini to, announce his glad birth. 

For heaven and earth ni^jst; share in this way, 
The Risen Lord:* s- glory on that glad Easter dayi 
The glory that came when the Saviour x^^as risen. 
The glory, that stretched ^from the; earth unto .heaven. 

•■■:■■• . ■. I Annie Baker ' ! 

■ r ' Maple, Ontario, 

THE PILGRIM is a religious magazine published monthly by Daniel F. Wolf in the 
interests of the members of The Old Brethren Church. Subscription rate: $1.50 per year. 
Sample copies sent free on request. Address: THE PILGRIM, Rt. 3, Box 1378, Modesto, Calif. 


The manner in which the Apostle Paul asked this 
challenging question of King Agrippa shows that he 
considered it obvious that God would raise the dead. 
And that he also considered King Agrippa sufficiently 
acquainted with the truth about God, through his know- 
ledge of T*Lat was written by the Old Testament prophets, 
that he should have no doubt concerning the resurrec- 
tion; for he says, "King Agrippa, believest thou the 
prophets? I know that thou believest," 

The fact of the resurrection of the dead should be 
as obvious to us as it was to Paul and Agrippa if we 
are acquainted with the Scriptures, and believe. When 
the Saducees carae to Jesus with what they thought was 
a hard question about the resurrection, Jesus said to 
them,^ "Ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures^ nor the 
power of God," Paul also said in his defence to 
Agrippa, "Having therefore obtained help of God, I 
comtinue unto this day, witnessing both to small and 
grea:t, saying none other things than those which the 
proph^ets and.. Moses did say should coraes That Christ 
should sxiffer, and that he should be the first that 
should rise from the dead, and should show light unto 
the people, and to the Gentiles," Again in writing to 
the Corinthian Church he appeals to the Scriptures 
for authority and proof of his doctrine of the resurrec- 
tion when he says, "For I delivered unto you first of 
all that which I also received, how that Christ died 
for our sins according to the scriptures; and that he 
was buried, and that he rose again the third day accord- to the scriptxires," 

Jesus also said to the two doubting disciples with 
whom he walked on the Emmaus road, "0 fools and slow 
of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken: 
Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to 
enter into his glory? And beginning at Moses and all 


the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scrip- 
tures the things.. concerning himself ♦ . • And he said 
.unto them. These are rthe .worda vhich I spake unto you, 
while I was yet with you, that all things must be ful- 
filled,, which were:^ written, in the law of Moses, and in 
the prophets, and in .the Psalms^ concerning me." ^ 


"When Adam and Eve x^ere driven' out of Paradise ^ be- • - 
cause of transgression, God said to Adam, . "inthe si^f^seat . 
of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou re tiirn, unto 
the ground;.- for out of it was thou taken: :■ for du^'t thou 
art, and unto dust ' shalt thou retiirn; " . "And ail. the -. 
days- that Adam lived were nine hundred and:thirty .ye^s: 
and he died " ^ ■ . ■. . 

Adam wondered, from the time that, death was .pronounced - 
upon him, if he would' live, again j and also about. Abel :'-^ 
whom Cain slew: Will he live again? Perhaps many 
others,- through the ages that followed,- wondered ^whether 
there. would be a resurrection. Job is- the first record- 
ed to have. asked the qjxestion, but we. are told that ■ ■ 
Abraham had faith in God, accounting that .ho w;aS: able... ^ 
to raise up his son Js^ac— even from the dead:- "fro?i ■" 
whence- also he received him in a figxire," Heb.-, 11:19,. =- 
Job received assux'ance tliat the dead would rise,, for ; : 
he said, "I know .that my redeemer liveth, and that he.- 
shall stand at the la^tter day upon the earth: and 
though after my skin worms destroy this body^ yet in . . 
my flesh shall I see God: whom I shall .see for myself, . 
and mine eyes shall behold, and not another." 

The Prophet Isaiah said, "He will swollow up death 
in victory; and the Lord shall wipe away tears from off 
all faces 5 and the rebuke of his people shall he take 
away from off all the earth," "Thy dead men shall. 
live, together vxith my dead body shall they arise. .. 
Awake and sing, ye that dwell in the, dust: for thy dew 
is as the dew of herbs, and and the earth shall cast 
out the dead." 

Ho sea says, "After two : days h^ will revive us: in- 


the third day he will raise us up, and we shall live 
in his sight." "I will ransom them from the power of 
th^ grave J I will redeem them from death: death, I 
will be thy plagues; grave, I will be thy destruction," 

Daniel said, "And many of them that sleep in the 
dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting 
life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt," 

The prophet David said in the Psalms, "I have set 
the Lord always before me: because he is at my right 
hand, I shall not be movedo Therefore mj heart is glad, 
and my glory rejoiceth: my flesh also shall rest in 
hope, for thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither 
wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption. 
Thou wilt shew me the path of life: in thy presence is 
fulness of joy. At thy right hand there are pleasures 
evermore. " 

These, and other Scriptures, of the Old Testament 
were sufficient ground for a firm belief and hope in 
the resurrection— even before Christ caBie into the worlds 


Mae Jesus came^ he said, "I am the resiirrection and 
the life," "As the Father raiseth up the dead and 
quickeneth them; even so the Son quickeneth whom he 
will," "I came down from heaven, not to do mine own 
will, but the will of hira that sent me. And this is 
the Father's will which hath sent me, that of all which 
he hath given me I should loose nothing, but shciold 
raise it up again at tlie last, day. And this is the will 
of him that sent me, that every one vjhich seeth the 
Son, and believeth on him, iTiay have everlasting life: 
and I will raise hira up at the last day." John 6:38-UO. 

He proved this power and authority by raising the 
dead during his ministry* He raised the twelve year 
old maiden to life again. He raised the son of the 
widow of Nain as he was being carried out of the city 
to his burial, and then raised Lazrus out of the grave 
after he had been dead four days. 

Lastly, he himself came forth from the grave on the 
third day after he was crucified and buried. He said, 
»»No man taketh (my life) from me^ but I lay it down of 


myself ♦ I have power to lay it down, and I have power 
to take it again. This commandment have I received of 
BQT Father. ^^ 

The precautions which the chief priests took to make 
the sepulchre "sure" no doubt were prompted by a great- 
er fear than that his disciples would come and steal 
him away. They said, "We .remember that that ,^eceiver 
said, while he was, yet alive,. After three, days I. will. 
rise again," In;viqw ^of 'the many miracles which he 
did while he was y^t alive^. including the raising of .. 
the dead, no doubt- caused them to have some very grave;.: 
fears that he would indeed rise again* . - - 

The great message which the apostles, preached to. 
the people after they were endued with pox-^er from on •■ • 
"High, was that "he is risen, and we are witnesses of 
his resurrection," Peter said^ on-ti7e day of Pentecost, 
"Him, being .delivered by the determnate counsel and 
foreknowledge of God, ye have taken, and by wicked hands 
have crucified and slain: l/feom God hath raised up,-.'havr 
ing loosed the pains of death: because it was not poss- 
ible that he should be holden ♦ . This, Jesus hath 
God raised up, whereof we all are witnesses.". And to 
Cornelius he said, "We did eat and drinK with him after 
he rose from the dead," 

The Apostle Paiol said, "He x^ras seen of Cephas (after 
he arose.), then of the twelve: after that he was seen 
of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the 
greater part remain unto this present , . and last of 
all he was seen of me also." 

IF--A-MAU DIE SHALL HE, LIVE AGAIN? lesi yesi yesj ■• 
Hear the risen Saviour say, "I aiu he that-liveth, and 
was dead; and, behold, I am alive forevermore, Amen; 
and have the, keys of hell and of death." 

"And they sung a new song, saying. Thou art worthy 
to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for 
thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy 
blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and .people, 
and nation; And hastirmiade us vixito our God kings- and ' *•* 
priests: and we shall reign on the earth,"- D.F.W. 


NO. U ' '^ ^. 
.y . Ji !• Cover 

-: "i^arvel not at this: for the hotir is coming-in the 
which all that are in their graves shall hear. his voice, 
and shall come forth; they that have: done goodv unto the 
resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto 
the resurrection of . damnation*" John. 5-28,29,' "Blessed 
and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection: 
on such the second death hath no power,, but th^y shall 
be priests of God. and of Christ, and shall reign with • 
him a. thousand years*" Hev* 20:6* The promise and 
power of the resurrection of the dead is the fascinating 
inspiring promise of the ages;. it shows the value and 
identity of every human being, by bringing to life again^ 
all human beings responsible and accountable to God. 
The first resurrection may be:diYided in three parts: 
I-.- Being raised to newness of life, by being dead unto 
sin— the complete work of baptisms. 2. The resurrec- 
. tion of Jesus, and the sleeping Saints who came out of 
their graves after his resurrection.- 3. ^he resurrec- 
tion of all true believers, and children^' at the coming 
of Jesus to receive his oim, which includes ^all living- 
Christians at his coming, who ■ will be changed or trans- 
lated. The resurrection of life is the inspiring bless- 
sed lot.of the redeemed, of the Lord, "who have washed 
their; robq;s, apd, made them white in the blood of the 
Lamb." Of these in particular I Cor. 15, explains, and 
hallows,. "So, is the resurrection of the dead; it is 
sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption: It 
is soi-m in dishonour; it is raised in glory: it is sown 
in weakness; it %s raised in power: It is sown a natural 
bo4y; it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural 

body, and there is a spiritual body, As is the 

earthy, such are they also that are earthy: and as is 
the heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly; And 
as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also 
bear tti.e ^image of the heavenly, r- - I'or this corrupt- 
ible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put 
on immortality. So iriien this corruptible shall have put 


on incorruptioHj and this ■mortal shall have put on im- 
mortality^ then shall be' brought to pass the saying that 
is ^written. Death is ;Swailowed up -an victory," I Cor. 
l5:i;2-lii|,U8jU9"53>5U» Death, was neces.§ary to limt sin* 
Death to the righteous is , a glorious interlude between 
natural life and lif^ eternal— death to;be swallowed 
up in victory. Hiis wonderful life giving power of 
victory over death, hell^j. and the- gr^,ve as, through our 
Lord Jesus Christ who. ^ of- his own inherent powery 
broke thi^'ough death "to victory, and gives- assui-ance to 
us by' saying, "I ain the resurrection and th^' life j he 
that believeth in Me though he wer-e. dead, yet shall: he 
live: And whosoever liveth and believeth in.i^J:e. shall 
never die. Believeth thou this?"^ '. . ■ - . '. '■ 

Sleep on; and rest in Paradise^ 
. . TJhen ti*ump of God is sounding' loud; 

The, saints of God shall then arise, * •' 

And meet the shining angel^cloud* 

Sleep on, ye^ xnn,Ttyrs in caress. 

Of sl'aitiber peace from labors long; 
In overccming high success, 
> ' To ixingle mth the angel-throng# _ ,. • 

Sleep on, ye aged in calm repose, : ■■ ' ' ■• 
• ' " Free from all labors, wait in peace;. ■ 

.:.• • Death is the blessing God bestbvfs, . ; -. ■ 

On frost J uro^vs -wheii- Vfork shall cease. 

Sleep on, oh youth, tJie spark aglow, . .^ i ■ 

God keeps intact, 'while resting long; 

Shall so-on- awake, though long ago, '' ' ..■,., 

Had been, pub down ibV rteper-strojig. 

Sleep on, oh children innocent, . ... . ■ ■ .^ 

Of all tha*s sin, and every "Wrong; ' ^\_ .- 

,. . V^ith angel- caring 'be content,.' ' - ' '■- " ' '' 

^ ' . ?ill morning' dami^ and waking ; song ». .;.■ .^ ■ 

. . Sleep on, ye weary; from afar, "- 

We watch and wait and long fo*r rest; '^ •■ 
teen Christ will come through. gates ajar, 
• . ■' We too may be mth all the" blest. , . . -,- . ■, 

Sleep on, ye hosts, in faithfulness,' 

God will awaken in that hour; 
To see his face in happiness,. " ■" . 

And feel at last his rising power. 

Next: TRANSLliriaJ 



David A.. Skiles 

In I Cor, 10:11 we read, *'Now all these things hap- 
pened to them for ensamples) and they are -written for 
our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are 
come," As we follow the history of Divine Revelation 
we find characters who were able, and did, resist the 
forces of evil vihich brought to them victory, unending 
fame, and glory. However, others on the other hand by 
yielding to the ever prevailing forces of the Evil One, 
who is ever pressing to gain dominion, brought upon 
themselves immeasurable loss, shame, and destruction. 
Therefore it is the part of wisdom that we notice, and 
profit by their experience. 

As we look to the beginning of the human race we see 
one beautiful example in the life of Enoch who did not 
walk with the Evil One, but WITH GOD, And what a trea- 
sure in the words, GOD TOOK HIM,. By which he speaks 
to us of eternal victory, 

\Jhen sin, wickedness and violence became so prevalent 
in the earth, much as it is today, Noali staggered not"-- 
at God's command to build the ark that saved him from 
the waters of destruction. What shame and reproach he 
must have met from ungodly men for such an unheard of 
advent-ore , 

Abraham, "The father of the faithful" to waom the 
Lord said, after he had become old in years, "Look now 
toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to 
number them: and he said imto him so shall thy seed be," 
when as yet he had no son, Mhen Isaac finally was born, 
the word now came, now of fer thy son, thine only son, 
Trthich he did and received him in a figure from, the dead, 
¥hat unshaken faith. And it is said we shall see Abra- 
ham, Isaac and Jacob IN THE KINGDOM OF GOD, For by 
faith he seen in the distance that city which hath foun- 
dations whose builder and maker is God, What profit 
for integrity sustained.. 

We think now of Joseph, the despised and rejected 
of all his brethren, sold into Egypt for twenty pieces 


of silvex", it mighrb be said of him as it was of JesuSj 
"In his hiHTiiliation his judgment was taken away" for 
he was truly a type of Jesus, but after being lied 
about, and imprisoned, soon his rising tide swiftly 
turned, and the dream of his early childhood so vividly 
came true. God was with him because his integrity was 
sustained until his bones rested in the land of Canaan, 
and how touching the song, "When Joseph his brethren 

Wear the close of Israel's fol^ty year journey throu^ 
the wilderness from Eg^/pt to Canaan, tx'^elve spies were 
sent to bring back report of coriditions in the land of 
the canaanites, among them were Joshua and Caleb, only 
these two were not afraid as were the others ^d^.o looked- 
on themselves -as grasshoppers compared to the giants of 
Canaan, and these two, Joshua and Caleb were the only 
ones of the six hundred thousand men that left Egjpt 
to cross Jordan into the Canaan land. This an examplifi- 
cation of integrity sustained possession in the promised 
land of liiilk and honey, a type of heaven itself. 

Gideon with tiiree hundred men, contrary to all himian 
calculations proceeded against the hidianites and dis- 
comfited them uttei'ly, for God was vath him, 

Elijah, the faithful prophet of the Lord, -^^Yien in 
his seeming dispondence,- thinking he" was left alone, of 
the prophets, and they seek my life to take it away» 
But the still small voice came to him and directed him 
to his successor ElpLsha* ¥nat faith in Elijaii i^jho by 
fervent and effectual jjrajer did break the drouth ox 
three yeaj:^s and six months. 

The sacred record tells ox Daniel, and his tliree com- 
rades of Israel, who encountered most severe trials and 
persecutj.on, and their unh;eard of deliverance from the 
mouth of the lions, and the super heated burning f irey 
furnace, and which brought shame, and dismay. to their 
persecuters, some of whom themselves were mangled in 
the lions den. 

We come to the Holy Prophets, of whom Jesus said, 
"0 Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets , 
and stonest them that are sent unto thee, how often 
would I have gathered thy children together. . , but ye 


would not." It is divinely said^ '^Ye are built upon 
the foundation of the apostles, and prophets, Jesus 
Christ being the chief corner stone.'* Mhat profound 
and comforting hopes do we receive from the writings of 
the Holy prophets, i^o could pierce the future far be- 
yond our time. They were holy men of God who spake as 
the Spirit gave them utterance. 

As in Heb, 11:32, "The time seems to fail to tell" 
of John the fore-runner ^ of Simeon, and Anna, of the 
eleven Apostles, of Luke, of Paul and Jude, and above 
all of Jesus Christ himself, the gracious Saviour and 
Redeemer of all 1^0 mil be redeemed. 

Have we any ensamples of integrity lost? Yes the 
first pair did not sust3,in their integrity, and the 
curse that followed is, in a great measure with us today. 

Nearly six hundred thousand Israelites failed in ihe 
wilderness to reach the land of promise ^ Saul was an- 
ointed king of Israel, but sad, sad was his plight when 
he lost his throne, because he lost his integrity, and 
Samuel could no more give him the comfort he so much 

Balaam, the man of God, failed because he loved the 
wages of unrighteousness* True enough he could not defy 
whom God had not defied, nor curse lAihom God had not 
cursed, and he longed to die the death of the righteous, 
but died upon the field of battle, because he did not 
live the life of the righteous. 

There was the man of God who was to cry against the 
altar at Bethel, which he did, but later lost his integ- 
rity, and was slain by the lion. And did not reach his 

So we have many ensamples for our admonition upon 
whom truly the ends of the worM are now come, and we ^'' 
need to strive to keep ourselves unspotted from the 
world which is defined in I John 2:16, and will surely ^ 
pass away. Let us be sure that "Integrity lost" is not 
confined to Old Testament times. 

— 'Rossville, Indiana. 



There are many evidence^.. Two of the most cogent 
are presented herewith: . FIRST, THERE VffiRE EYEVHTNESSES 
TO THE REALITY OF A RISEN REDEEI-ffik. -'According to I Cor.. 
l$y He was seen by >iary Magdaline> by i^certain women^' 
as they returned from the tomb ^ by James,' by the eleven, 
by Paul himself , and by "above five hundr en brethren^ 
at-once«" The last cluster of witnesses ' (the ^00 plus) 
carries perhaps the greatest impact. Paul couples 
this statement (I Cor 1^:6) with the f mother observat- 
ion, "most of whom are still alive" (R^V). He was not 
afraid that he would be -unable to prove his point. It 
looks as though he was even daring doubters to ask for' 
proof. If Jesus had not been raised from the dead, 

"'this assertion that there:: were hundreds of witnesses 
to. his resurrection still available woxiid have' been 

. absolutely foolhardy. Someone could have demanded to . 
see and talk with one or a n-^omber of them, and'Paul :-,, 
would have been in a tough spot, 

THlSlR BELIEFS/ The following analysis was vrritten by 
Simon. Or eenleaf, the famous professor of law at Harvard, 
who did so much to establish the splendid reputatip)i 
of the Harvard Law School: "The great truths which. the 
apostle^ declared were, that Christ had' risen from the.:- 
dead, and that only through repentance from sin, and- ; *. 
f aitii in him, coiild men hope for salvation. This, doc- 
trine they asserted with one' voice, everywhere, not 
only under the greatest discouragements, but in the 
face of the. most appalling terrors that could be pres- 
ented to the mind of man. . . The' laws of every country 
were against the teachings of Hia disciples. The inter- 
ests and passions of all the rulers and great m.en in 
the world were against them. The fashion of the .world 
was against. them. Propagating this new faith, . • • 
they could expect nothing but contempt, opposition, 
revilings, bitter persecutions, stripes, imprisonments, 
torments, and cruel deaths. Yet this faith they zeal- 


ously did propagate; and all these miseries they en- 
dured undismayed, nay, rejoicing, as one after another 
was put to a miserable death, the survivors only pros- 
ecuted their work with increased vigor and resolution. 
^ ♦ . They had every possible motive to review care- 
fully the grounds of their faith, and the evidences 
of the great facts and truths which they asserted. . 
, . It was therefore impossible that they could have 
persisted in affirming the truths they have narrated, 
had not Jesus actually risen from the dead, and had 
they not Icnown this fact as certainly as they knew any 
other fact. If it were morally possible for them to 
have been deceived in this matter, every human motive 
operated to lead them to discover and avow their error.. 
To have persisted in so gross a falsehood, after it 
was known to them, was not only to encounter, for life, 
all the evils which man could inflict, from without, 
but to endure also the pangs of inward and conscious 
guiltj with no hope of future peace, no testimony of 
a good conscience, no expectation of honor or esteem 
am^mg men, no hope of happiness in this life, or in 
the world to come. • . If . . , their testimony was 
not true, there Was no possible motive for its fabri- 
cation. ** 

Lord Lyndhurst, who is recognized as one of the 
greatest legal minds in British history, who served 
his nation as Solicitor General, and three tinies as 
High Chancellor, left behind him when he died a clear- 
cut testimony to the strength of ihe evidence that 
underlies the resurrection. After his death, a docu- 
ment was found in his desk that gave an extended account 
of his Christian faith. In this treatse he said, >'I 
know pretty well what evidece is; and I tell you, such 
evidence as that for the resurrection has never broken 
down yet.J» —Gospel Herald, 1957. 

Art thou lonely, my brother? 
Share thy little with another I 
Stretch a hand to one imfriended. 
And thy loneliness is ended. 




'»^And we know that all things work together for 
good to them that love God, to them who are the 
called according to his purpose." Romans 8:28« 

Like many other promises of God, this promise is 
prefaced by a condition. Only those who love God and 
living according to His purpose can lay claim to this 
promise. Too often, however, those who do love God 
and are walking according to His purpose find it dif- 
ficult to accept the promise that all things work to- 
gether for good. The real test of character comes in 
the way we react when things go against us. To be a 
»fai2rweather Christian" is easy. Real Christ-likeness 
abides in that soul which lives above the storms of 

" ^Tis easy enough to look pleasant, 
When life glides along like a song. 

But the man worth-while. 

Is the man that can smle 
Mxen everything goes dead wrong." 

Not every ingredient used in the baking of a cake 
tastes good by itself. But the cake is good when those 
same ingredients are put together in the right way. 
So it is with life. To each one come many unpleasant 
experiences. God Imows that they are necessary if we 
would develop into strong, useful disciples. Such ex- 
periences are changed into blessings if we trust God 
and rely upon His wisdom a^^^ His love. The unpleasant 
experiences of prison life could not dampen the spirit 
of a great man of God like Paul, nor could they thx^art 
the eternal purposes of God through him. 

"Lord, I would clasp Thy hand in mine. 
Nor ever murmur nor complain j 
Content, whatever lot I see. 
Since *tis my God that leadeth me." 

-« Selected 



FRANKLIN REUBEN FLORI^ son of Abraham Flory and' 
Christina Frantz, was born December 19, l878j at Upper 
Twin, Prebble Coianty, Ohio,*- -And passed away March 16, 
1960^ in Modesto, California, the age of 81 shears 
2 months and 17 'days* He' was united in inarriaga to 
Peai*l Flory November-^, 1902. To this union 6 children 
were^born. One son Earl preceeded him in death. He 
is survived by his widow Pearly one daughter ?elva 
Miller of Waterford, Califs, :^our sons: Jesse of Cairii'en, 
Indian^, Willard of Modesto, Calif,, Paul of Lathrop, 
Calif., and Glenn of Fair Oaks, Calif*; 11 grandchild- 
ren, 15 great-grandchildren, one sister YisTj Ann Friend 
of Bangar, Mchigah, and one brother Irvin of Ohio, 

He and his wife were baptised into the Old German 
Baptist' Church in I906 by Brother Abrahani Fisher near . 
Covert, -'Michigani. and has been a. member of the Old ' 
Brethren Church since I9I6. 

He moved his family from Michigan to Los Angela's, ' 
California in 19lU> and they moved to Stanislaus 
County in I916, x-^here he resided until his death. 

Funeral services were-^tionducted in "the Old Brethren 
meeting house at Salida, Calif., March 20, by the home 
brethren. - ' • _ . 

'.,'"■ ■''■ 'The Family ■ • 

, . ... •: . ■ - ... • • ■■ eOMfUNION NOTICE . .- • -.. 

^ The Salida Congregation have agreed, the Lord 
'willing, to hold our Spring Lovefeast on April 
23, of this year. A hearty invitation and., 
welcome is extended to -all the brethren and 
sisters, and friends to attend. — D,F.¥. 

On this earth we do not know what is- coming, but 
we know Who is coining. In history we may be on the 
losing side. But beyond history wa -shall: b^' oh the 
winning side. Therefore we are the people of hope, 

— Sele«^ed. 


(Conderised from the lect-ures of C, G. Finney, 18U8) 
(Continued from x^arch Number) 

A denial of this doctrine has the natiiral tendency to beget 
the -very apathy mtnessed in the church. Professors of religion 
go on in sin, vdthout much conviction of its wickedness. Sin 
unblu shingly stalks abroad even in the church of God, and does 
not fill Christians mth horror, because they expect its exis-^ 
tence as a thing of course. Tell a young convert that he must 
expect to backslide, and he mil do so of course, and mth cor:>- 
paratively little remorse, because he looks upon it as a kind 
of necessity. And being led to expect it, you find him, in a 
few months after his conversion, away from God, and not at all 
horrified with his state. Just so, inoixLcate the idea among 
Christians, that they are not expected to abandon all sin, and 
they will of course go on in sin with comparative indifference* 
Reprove them for their sin, and they will say, '^0, we are inw 
perfect creatures;, we do not pretend to be perfect, nor do we 
expect we ever shall be in this worlds," Iviany such answers as 
these mil show you at once the God-dishonoring and soul-mining 
tendency of a denial of this doctrine. 

A denial of this doctrine prepares the minds of ministers to 
temporizes a^d wink at great iniquity in their ch-orohes^ Feeling, 
as they certainly must, if they disbelieve this doctrine, that 
a great amount of sin in all believers is to be expected as a 
thing of course, their vrhole preaching, and sp5,rit, and demeanor, 
will be such as to beget a great degree of apathy among Christ- 
ians, in regard to their abominable sins. 

If this doctrine is not true, how px' of ane and blasphemous is 
the covenant of evex-y church of every evangelical denomination. 
Every church requires its members to make a solemn covenant with 
God and with the ch-arch, in the presence of God and angels, and 
•vvith their hands upon the emTDlems of the broken body and shed 
blood of the blessed Jesus, "to abstain from all ungodliness 
and evei-y worldly lust, to live soberly, rignteously, and godly^ 
in this present world." ITow, if the doctrine of the attainability 
cf entire sanctifi cation in this life is not true, what profane 
mockery is this covenant I It is a covenant to live in a state ■ 
of entire sanctifi oat ion, made under the most solemn circumstances, 
enforced by the most awful sanctions, and insisted uoon by the 
minister of God distributing the bread and wine* Now what right 
has any minister on earth to require less than this? And again, 
what right has any minister on earth to require this, unless it 
is a practicable thing, and imless it is expected of him who 
makes the vow? 

Suppose, when this covenant was proposed to a convert about 
to unite with the church, he should take it to his closet, and 
spread it before the Lord, and inquire whether it would be right 


f '^r him tp irake such a covenant, and whether the grace of the 
gospel can enable him to fulfil it? Do you suppose the Lord 
Jesus would reply, that if he made that covenant, he certainly 
would, and m].ist, as a matter of course, live in the habitual 
violation of it as long as he lives, and that his grace was not 
sufficient to enable .him to keep it? Would he, in such a case, 
have any right to take upon himself this covenant? No, no mj^re 
than he would have a right to lie to the Holy Ghost • 

It has long been maintained by orthodox divines, that a person 
is not a Christian who does not aim at living mthout sin— that 
unless he aims at perfection, he manifestly consents to live in 
sin; and is therefore impenitent* It has been said, and I think 
truly p that if a man does not, in the fixed purpose of his heart, 
aim at total abstinence from sin, and at being wholly conformed 
to-the will of God., he is not yet regenerated, and does not so ; 
much as mean to cease from abusixag God, In Barnes V Notes upon 
2 Cor. YIII. 1, we have the following; — 

'*The unceasing and. steady aim of every Christian should be 
perfection— perfection in all things— in the love of God, of 
Christ, of man; perfection of heai-^, an^ feeling^ and emotion; 
perfection in his v/ords, and pi^ns, and dealings mth men; per- 
fection in his prayers, and in his submission to the will of 
God» No man can be a Christian v^-ho does not sincerely deal re it, - 
and who does not const antler aim at it« No man is a friend of 
God who can acquiesce in a state of sin, and who is satisfied 
and contented that he is not a,s .holy as God is holy. And any 
man who has no desire to -be perfect as God is, and who does not 
mal?;e it his daily and constant aim to be as perfect as God, n:ay 
set it do^m as demonstrably certain that he has no i:rue religion**' 

How if this is so, I would ask how a person can aim at, and 
intend to do^ what he Izno-wB to be impossible • Is it net' a con- 
tradiction to say that a man can intend to do what he kno'v;s he 
cannot do? To tMs it has been objected, that if true, . it proves 
too much— that it would prove that no man ever was a Chxlstian 
vfho did not believe in this doctrine. To this I reply: — 

A man may believe in what is really a state of entire sancti- 
fication, and aim at attaining it, although he may not call it . 
by that namet Ihis I believe to be the real fact with Christians; 
and they would much more frequently attain what they 'aim at, did 
they know how to appropriate the grace of -Christ to their o-wn 
oircomstanceso I care not what this state is called, if the 
thing be fully explained and insisted up6n, together with the 
conditions of attaining it. Call it what you please. Christian, 
perfection, heavenly mindedness, the full assurance of faiih or ■ 
hopeor a state of entire consecration; by all these I understand 
the same thi-ng. And it is certain, that by whatever name it is 
called, the thing must be aimed at to be attained. The practic- 
ability of its attainment must be admitted, or it cannot be aimed 
at, ^id now I would humbly inq\iire, whether to preach any thing 
short of this is not be give countenance to sin? 


If this doctrine is not true, what is true upon the subject? 
It is certainly of great in^ortanoe that ministers should be 
definite in their instructions; and if Christians are not expected 
to be wholly, conformed to the will of God in this life, how much 
is expected of them? Who can say, HitheaH;o canst thou, inust thou 
come, but no further? It is certainly absurd, not to say ridic- 
ulous, for ministers to be forever pressing Christians up to 
higher and higher attainments, saying at every step, you can 
and must go higher, and yet all along informing them, that they 
are expected to fall shoart of their whole duty, that they can 
as a matter of fact, be better than they are, far better, indefi- 
nitely better; but still it is not expected that they will do 
their whole duty. I have often been pained to hear men preach, 
^o were afraid to conmit themselves in favor of the ivhole truth; 
and who were yet evidently afraid of falling short in their in- 
structions, of insisting that men should stand "perfect and com- 
plete in all the will of God.** To be consistent they are evid- 
ently perplexed, and well they may be; for in truth there is no 
consistency in their views and teachings* If they do not incul- 
cate, as a matter of fact, that men ought to do, and are expected 
to do, their whole duty, they are sadly at a loss to know -v^at 
to inculcate. They have evidently many misgivings about insist- 
ing upon less than this, and still they fear to go to the full 
extent of apostolic teaching on this subject* And in their at- 
tempts to throw in qualifying terms and caveats, to avoid the 
impression, that they believe in the doctrine of entire sancti— 
float ion, they place themselves in a truly a-wfcward position. 
Cases have occurred in which ministers have been asked, how far 
we may go, must go, and are expected to go, in dependence upon 
the grace of Christ, and how holy men may be, and* are expected 
to be, and must be, in this life. They could give no other answer 
to this, than that they can be a great deal better than they are. 
Novr this indefiniteness is a great stiomblingblook to the chiirch. 
It cannot be according to the teachings of the Holy Ghost. 

The tendency of a denial of this doctrine is, to my mind, con— 
cliisive proof that the doctrine itself must be true. Ivfe-ny devel- 
opments in the recent history of the church throw light upon this 
subject. Who does not see that the facts developed in the temper- 
ance reformation have a direct and powerful bearing upon this 
question? It has been ascertained, that there is no possibility 
of completing the temperance reformation, except by adopting the 
principle of total abstinence from all intoxicating drinks. Let 
a temperance lecturer go forth as an evangelist, to promote re- 
vivals on the subject of temperance— let him inveigh against 
dr-onkenness, while he admits and defends the moderate use of 
alcohol, or insinuates, at least, that total abstinence is not 
expected or practicable. In this stage of the temperance reform- 
ation, every one can see that such a man can make no progress; 
that he would be employed like a child in building dams of sand 
to obstruct the mishing of mighty waters. It is as certain as 
that causes produce their effects, that no permanent reformation 
could be effected, without adopting and insisting on the total 
abstinence principle « 


■ ■ "'"Ind now, if this is true, as it respects tiie temperance re- 
formation, how much .more so when'.apjplied tq the subjects of 
holiness and sin. "A "man might., -by some possibility, even in his 
srvm strength J overcome hi g habits of drunkenness^- and retain what 
'might be called the temperate "use of alcohol. But no such thing 
is possible in a iref ormation\froip sin* There is -no temperate In— 
* dulgence in sin. '■ Sin, as a matter of fact, is never overtcome by 
any man in his oxm stfen^th. If he admits into his creed the ' 
necessity of any degree of sin, or if he allows in practice any 
degree of 'sin, he becomes impenitent, consentvS to live in- sin, 
and of course grieves the Holy Spirit, the certain result of .■ 
which is a relapsi'ng into a state of legal bondage to sinv Arid 
this is probably a true history of many professed Christians in 
the church c It is just' vrhat might be expected from the views 
and practice of the church upon this subjecto 

The secret of backsliding is, th^t reformations are not carr- 
ied deep enough* Christians are not set -with all their hearts 
to aim at a speedy deliverance from all sin, but on the contrary 
are left, and in maaiy instances taught, to indiolge the expecta- 
- tion that they Shall sin as long as they liveo I probably never 
shall forget the effect produced on my mind by -readings Y^en a 
young convert, in the diary of David Brainerd, that he ne'^'-er ex- 
pected to make any considerable attainments in holiness in this 
life* I can now easily see that/ this was a natural inference 
from the theory of physical sinfulness which he heldn But not 
perceiving this at the time, I doubt not that this expression of 
his 'Views had a very injurious effect upon me for many years o 
It- led me to reason thus: if such a man as David Brainerd did 
not expect to make mu'ch advancement in holiness in this life, it 
is vain for me to' expect such a thing «, / 

The fact is, if there be anything that is import^'Ht to high 
attai-ntoients in holiness, and t.o the progress of the 7fork of sanc- 
tificatioh in this life, it is the adoption of the principle of 
total abstinence from sin« Total abstinem:;e'from sin must be 
every man's motto, or sin will certainly sweep him away, as mth 
. a f 1 d • That cann o t pp s s i bly ,b e a t rue pr in ci pi e in t amp er an c e , 
that leaves the causes vrhich produce driiiikennesij to opera^^e in 
-their full strength. Hor can that be true in regard to holiness 
-vr^ i ch I'e ave s t h e . r o ot un e:^ t r act ed , an d t he cert ai n c au s e s of 
spiritual decline snd. backsliding at work in the. very "heart of ■ 
t he chur ch » ind I am f iH 1 y c onvi need t hat unt il e vang eli s t s 
and pastors adopt, and oarxy out in practice, the principle of 
total abstinence from, all sin,,. they will as certainly find thein^ 
selves, every few 'months, called to do their work over again, as 
a temperance lect'Orer would who should admit the moderate use of 
alcohol; '' 

Again, who does not know that to call upon sinners to repent, 
and at the same time to inform, them that they mil not, and cannot, 
and are not expected to repent, would, for ever prevent their re- 
pentance? Suppose you &ay to a sinner, "You are naturally able 

(Continued on page 94) . 





GOVERNlffiNT. The goyernment of the Church at the be- 
ginning of the third century was nearly such as we have 
described in the last chapter. The more important : 
Churches were severally superintended by a bishop , pos- 
sessed of a certain, but not very definite degree of 
authority, who ruled in concert with the body of pres- 
byters, and even consulted on matters of great moment 
the opinion of the whole assembly. The provincial synods, 
of Tfdiich we have spoken, composed of those bishops, as- 
sited by a few presbyters, now began to meet with great 
regularity and to publish canons for the general ordina- 
tion of ecclesiastical affairs. The Metropolitans grad- 
ually rose in consequence. Their dignity seems to have 
been conferred for life; but their legitimate power was 
confined to the calling and presiding in councils, and 
the fraternal admonition of offenders. Still it was the 
natural consequence, of this system, acting on. human" 
imperfection, that the occasional presidents insensibly 
asserted a general preemi.nence over the other bishops, 
which it became their next step to dispute. each 
other; and that the other bishops,: being now constantly 
distinguished from their presbyters by these synodical 
meetings, assuiTBd both over them and the people a degree 
of ascendency not originally acknowledged, but which it 
was. not difficult- gradually "to convert into authority. 
If we are to bestow on any individual the credit' of 
having accomplished a cnage so natural and so' nearly 
insensible, that distinction may possibly be due to 
Cyprain; certain it is,, that he pleaded for episcopal 
supremacy with much more 2eal and vehemence than had 
hitherto been employed in that cause.. It seems clear, 
indeed, from several of his epistles, especially that 
addressed to Rogatian, that bishops possessed in his 
time, or at least in his Church, the power of suspending 
or deposing delinquents among the clergy; . yet even this 
was liable to some indefinite restrictions as to clrcum- 


s-fance and- custom-,' and to a direct appeal to a provin- 
cial councils And it does not appear that such power 
was frequently exerted without the consent of the pres- 
byterial college, or senate of the Church, From these 
facts, compared with the as-sertions afterwardr^ made by 
St, Jerome and St, Chrysostom, (which we have already 
mentioned,)' we infer that the actual progress of episc- 
pal usurpation, during the third century, was much less 
than some have imagined— or at least, that the power 
of "the bishops grew chiefly through the growth of their 
INFLUENCE, and was, not yet publicly acknowledged by the 
constitution of the Church. 

We admit, however, with sorrowful reflection,, that . 
the- individual conduct of some, perhaps man, among the 
directors of the Church, during the course, and especi- 
ally the conclusion, of this centiur-y, deserved- the. repre- 
Tiensions of contemporary and succeeding vjriters. Some 
'a^s'iimption of the ensigns of temporal dignity-*- the sploi- 
did throne, the sumptuous garments, the parade of exter- 
nal pomp— indicated a departure from apostolical simpli- 
city ard a contentious ambition succeeded, to the^ devoted 
humility of former' days. And though we believe this 
evil to have been exaggerated by. all the writers who 
have dwelt upon it, since the abuses which we have not- 
iced could scarcely be carried to violent excess by an 
order possessing no legally recognised rights or prop- 
erty, we may still be convinced, by the institution of 
certain inferior classes in the ministry, such as sub- 
deacons, acoluthi, readers, exorcists, and others, that 
the higher ranks had made some advances in luxurious 

CATECHUtnENS. This deterioration in the character. of 
the minsters was attended by a corresponding change in . 
the ceremonies of the Church, The division of the 
people into txTO classes, the . Fai^thf ul and the Catechu- 
mens, was the practice, if not the invention, of the 
third centui-^y. It was borrowed from the pagan principle 
of initiation; and the outw rd distinction between those 
classes was this: that after the performiance of public 
worship the latter were dismissed, while the former, 
the true and initiated Christians, remained to celebrate 


the mysteries of their religionj and this term is by- 
some thought to have expressed not only the administra- 
tion of the sacraments, but the delivery of some doct- 
rinal instructions. The original simplicity of the 
office of baptism had already undergone some, corruption. 
The symbol had been gradually exalted at the expense of 
the thing signified, and the spirit of the ceremony was 
beginning to be lost in its form. Hence a belief was 
gaining ground among the converts, and was inculcated 
among the heathen, that the act of baptism gave remiss- 
ion of all sins committed previously to it. It was not 
fit, then, that so important a rite should be hastily 
performed or inconsiderately received j and, therefore, 
the new proselytes were, in the first instance, admitted 
into a probationary state under the name of Catechmens, 
whence they were chosen, according to their progress in 
grace, into the body of the Faithf^al.. As long as they 
remained in that class, great care was taken to instruct 
them in the important truths, and especially in the 
moral obligations, of religionj yet. doubtless there 
would be some among them in whom the love of sin surviv- 
ed the practice of superstition, and' such would naturally 
defer their baptism and their pardon until the fesr of 
death, or satiety of enjoytitent, overtook them. It is 
true, that baptism, was not supposed to bestow' any -impun- 
ity for future sinsj on the contrary, the first offence 
co-mmitted after it required the expiation of a public 
confession, and the second was punished by excommunica-^ 
tion. But if the hope and easy condition of pardon for 
the past tended, as it may have done, to fill the ranks 
of the catechuiaens, we may reasonably indulge the belief 
that the great majority" were aiuended . and perfected by 
the religious instruction which was then opened to them. 

About the same time, and from causes connected with 
this iaisapprehension of the real naturae of baptism, and 
the division of the converts, a vague and mysterious 
veneration began to attach itself to the other Sacramentj 
its nature and merits were exaggerated by those who ad- 
ministered and partook of it; it was regarded with super- 
stitious ctiriosity by those to whomi it was refused; and 
reports were already propagated of the miraculous effi- 


cacy of the consecrated elements • 

'An opinion at this time hecame prevalent in the • 
Christian world^ that the demons^ the enemies of-manj'* 
were^ in fact^ the same beings whom -the heathen worship-. 
ped as gods, who inliabited their temples and animated 
their statues. It became, therefore, the duty of the 
soldiers of Christ to assail them under every farm, and 
expel them from every residence,- That, ' indeed, which 
they are related m.ost frequently to have occupied was 
the body of man, and from this refuge they were perse- 
vering ly disturbed by the pious exorcisms of the clergy; 
and' this practice vxas carried to such superstitious ex- 
cess^ that none were admitted to the ordinance of -bap-' 
tism until they had been solemnly delivered from the- • 
'doniihion of the Prince of Darkness, "The Sign of the^ " 
Cross, which was already in much honor in the tinie' of 
■ Tertullian, xms held to be of great effect in the' e>q)ul- 
sion of demons, and in other mracles. We also find 
that the use of prayers for the dead obtained 'very 
general prevalence during this age. 

— Vfaddington's 'History of the Church,; 


{continued from page 90) 
to repent; but it is certain that you never mil repent in this 
life, either -vdth or -without the Holy Spirit*'* , Mia does not 
see that such teaching would prevent his repentance as surely 
^as he believed it? To say to a professor of religion, ** You are 
naturally able to be wholly conformed tc the 7d.ll of God; .but 
it is certain that you never will be, in this life, either in 
• your o-vm strength^ or by the grace of God;" if this teaching 
"be believed, it will just as certainly prevent his sanctifica'*-- 
tion, as the other teaching would the repentance of a sinner* ' 
, I can speak from experience on this subject » \Vhile I inculcated 
the ooimion views, I was often inst3runiental in bringing Christ- 
ians under great convictien, and into a state of temporary re- 
pentance and f aith« But falling short of urging them up to" 
a point *77here they wotild become so acquainted with Christ as to 
abide, in him, they would ef course so en relapse again into their 
former state* I seldomsaw, and can novr understand that I had 
"no reason to expect to see, under the instructions which I then 
gave, such a state of religious principle, such steady and con- 
firmed vjalking yath God among Christians, as I have since the 
change in my views and inst mictions. 



The -way to Bxmaus seemed longer that day. 

To the two tvho were -walkxng the road— • 
For each carried mth him a sadf bleeding heart, 
' 4nd the weight on each heart seemed a load» 

Together they walked, and together they talked 

Of things that had happened of late« 
Of how they had seen Him, the prophet of God> .... 

The victim of crueltyl Hatel 

They savr how the leaders delivered Him up- 
Condemned Him to die on the tree* 

j^d then as He died, their hopes, too, seemed to die— 
They'd hoped the Redeemer was He* 

Three days now had passed since that terrible day. 
And some of the wumen had said— '- . .. 

And not only t^hey, but some others as well- 
That He was now raised fron; the dead! 

A soft step was heard, and a Stranger drew near 
To walk with them now on their way— ■ ' ' 

He asked them of this they were talking about. 
They answered, perhaps with dismayl 

"And are you a stranger among us?" they a^ked. 

For these things were known far and wide- 
How Jesus had claimed to be God's only Son— 
And now He was deadl Cmicifiedl 

But now as they Walked, Hi^'^s the third l.lan who -talked 
And expounded the Scriptures mth power! ^. ; 

For it was no stranger who walked mth the two— 
•Twas Christ -walking with them that hour^ 

The evening was coming* They urged Him to stay. 

To enter their home and find rest* 
And then as the Stranger man blessed and broke bread. 

They knev/ -who it was, this their Guest. '• . 

And I, like the two, have been burdened at time's. 

And doubtful and weary and sad— 
But then He has come, and has walked by my side* 

He has lifted my load— and made glad# 

' —Geneva Showerman* 


^— TITUS^ 

The Apostle Paul had left Titus to have the charge 
of the, church there. There were matters which needed 
attention^ so the Apostle wrote this epistle ^ probably 
about A.L. 66; to giv^ Titus instructions on the con- 
duct irg ox church work and what he should teach» 

In Chapter One Paul gives the qualifications for 
a bishop, .since Titus x^as to ordain elders in the 
different "cities. The ordaining of bishops was very 
'important since false teaching was so prevalent there, 
and teachers were needed to counteract this. 

,_ In Chapter Two the . qualification are given for all 
Christians. He exhorts that they be sober, chaste, 
temperate, sound in- the faith, patient, etc., that 
denying ungodly and worldly lusts, we should live 
soberly, righteously, and. godly in this present world. 
What ^contrast this must have been to the way the 
people there jhad been living] 

In Chapter Three he gives further instructions and 
promises, and points out that ±|ie kindness and love 
of God. do not come by works of righteousness which we 
have done, but iaecording to his mercy he saved us by 
the washing of regeneration and the renewing of the 
Holy Ghost,— that, being justified by his grace, we 
should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal 
life. - • -■,..: 

QUESTIONS:- * ■ ;• •■ - • • ■.. • • ■ • 
...Fill in the missing- words. ' 

In all things shewing thyself a pattern of 

... , in doctrine showing , . y , so'ond 

5 that" cannot be , __^ that he that is of the 

_part may be " -.■ . ■, having, no 

to say of you^ 

Daniel S. Vlagner 
Modesto, California. 


VOL, 7 MAY- JUNE, I96O MPs, g^6 

"Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain 
from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul." 1 Peter 2: 11 

. ., IN GETHSEIvIAI^JE ALONE ^ ,.. -•-• '■ 

Oh>' what -wbHclrous love I se'e' 
Freely sho&rn fci* yen 'and lae"^" ..,' '"' 
Bjr the one vxho dia atone 1 " 
' Just- to show his matchiess grace, 
Jesus suffered for the"' race,' * 
In Gethsemane alone, 
Gh x^^hat love for me vas shotmj 

^^Tarry here," he told the three/' 
■^'Tarry here and i^^ratch for me/' 
But they heard no bitter "moan; ' . 
For the three disciples 'slept ';' 
Waile my loving Saviour xvept, " '' 
In Gethsemane alone ' ' 

Oh what love for me was shoxml 

Long in anguish deep was he,. ' ^ 
Weeping there for you and me. 
For "our sins to him was knovm;^ 
-We should ^ love him everitiore " 

■ For •'■ the *anguish' that he bor^. 

■ In 'Gethsemane alone 

Oh' -what love for me vxas shown. 

■■ , .v::- .. - — Sele:cted 

THE PILGRIM is a religious magazine publislied monthly by Daniei F. Wolf in the 
interests of the members of The Old Brethren Church. Subscription rate: $1.50 per year. 
Sample copies sent free on request. Address; THE PILGRIM, Rt. 3, Box T378, Modesto, Calif. 


The words trees, vines, plants^ roots, stocks, and 
branches, are frequently used in both the Old and New 
Testaments to represent individuals or nations. 

Examples of this are found in Isa. 53 where 
Christ is likened to "a. tender plant and a root out 
of a dry groundo" In Isa^ 6l the children of Zion are 
called "trees of righteousness, the planting of the 
Lord." Isa. 11: 1, foretelling of the coming Messiah, 
calls him a "rod" and a "BraJich" that shall grow out 
of the "roots" of Jesse. Much of the 17th chapter of 
Eaekiel is a description of "trees" and "vines" that 
represent the king of Babylon and the king of Israel, 
and the Messiah, Especi^ly were the words vine and 
vineyard used to represent the nation of Israel and 
her rulers. 

Thus in the 80th Psalm is fotmd the following sig- 
nificant statement: "Thou hast brought a vine out of 
Egypt: thou hast cast out the heathen and planted it, 
and didst cause it to take deep root, and it filled 
the land , . , Return we beseech thee, God of hosts: 
look down from heaven, and behold, and visit this vine; 
and the vineyard which thy right hand hath planted, 
and the branch that thou madest strong for thyself," 
Although this "vine" is not identified in the 80th 
Psalm, it is obvious that it has reference to the 
nation of Israel Miiom the Lord delivered out of Egypt 
and planted them in the Canaan land. Its identity is 
clearly and definitely established in the 5th chapter 
of Isaiah where the symbol is changed from the singular 
"vine" to the plural "vineyard." "For the vineyard of 
the Lord of hosts is the house of Israel, and the men 
of Judah his pleasant plant." 

It is of special interest to notice how closely the 
description of the vineyard in verses 1-6 of Isa. 5 
paralells the parable of the vineyard which Jesus spoke 
to the rulers of the Jews in Matt. 21: 33-Ul. And the 


Jews evidently understood that the vineyard represented 
their nation^ for in verse li5 it is said, ^^And when the 
chief priests and Pharisees had heard his parables, 
they perceived that he had spoken of them," 

Thus, when Jesus said, "I am the true vine, " he was 
not introducing a new symbol to them^ but one with vjhich 
they were familiar. But the application of this symbol 
to himself may have been new to them, Mien he isaid, '^I ■ 
am, the true vine, it was the same as if he had said, 
I am. the true Israel. The application of the Titrue" .'^ 
vine to himself immediately infers that there Is or '" ;;' 
was a "vine" that was not true. And this inference ; .■;*; 
greatly adds to the meaning of this text. 

In Jeremiah 2:21 we are. told of the vine that was- ■ ■' 
not true. It had been a good vine but was become a 
degenerate one. "Yet I had planted thee a noble vine^^ \ 
wholly a right seed: how then art thou turned into a* 
degenerate plant of a strange vine- unto me?"' This was 
written on the eve of the fall of the carnal dynasty of 
David., and the dispersion, of the remnant of Israel into 
Babylonish captivity. Isaiaii $ was wi^itten about 100 
years earlier^, and even at that*. time it xms said, -"He 
looked that it should bring forth grapes, and it brought 
forth wild grapes. 

Israel was a title name (meaning A prince of God) 
■which God gave to Jacob when he was nearly one hundred; ,. 
years old, and after he had prevailed in a struggle ; 
with an ■•angel of God) or after he had become an "oyer- ' 
comer" and, had obtained power with God. Thus in a 
sense Jacob was like Christ, having power with God and 
with men .and hast prevailed-. a Godman.. Jacob was 
a man in a great struggle to obtain power with God, 
while Jesus was God in the flesh, made like a man and 
suffereing like a man in order to bring him to God. 
Jacob was "a"' prince because he was the head or pro- 
genitor of a seed or nation which God chose to* be his 
people. But under Jacob -Israel remained carnal and 
disobedient, and- finally crucified their Lord." But 
Christ is THE PRDICE of God because he is the SON of . 
God and. head of the New Creation which are born of God ^ 
and are therefore -the children of God. Even the carnal 


seed of Jacob, wha was called Israel, must be begotten 
again in Christ- in order to become children of God and 
heirs of the kingdom of God, as Jesus said to Nicodemas 
(an Israelite by carnal descent) ^ "Ye must be born 
again" in order to enter and participate in the king- . 
dom of God. 

Je'sus' right to the title of "Israel'* is remarkably 
demonstrated in the Old Testament prophecy of his child- 
hood sojourn to^ and his call out of Egypt, in the 11th 
chapter of Hosea, which says, "Wien Israel was a child, 
then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypto" 
In Matt. 2:l5 this prophecy is interpreted as foretell- 
ing of Jesus ^ flight, as an. infant, to, and his return 
out of Egypt to escape from Herod vjho sought to kill 
him. For it says, "that it might be. fulfilled which 
was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying. Out of 
Egypt have I called my son." 

Thus Christ is the true "vine" and "seed of Abraham." 
Old Covenant Israel has passed away. That is, the 
covenant has passed away, as the Apostle Paul plainly 
teaches in Hebrews 8, which says, "But now hath he ' . 
(Christ) obtained a more excellent ministry, by how 
much also he is the mediator of a better covenant, which 
was established upon better promises. For if that first 
covenant had been faultless, then should-no place have 
been sought for . the second. For finding fault with them, 
he saith. Behold the days come, saith the Lord, when I 
will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and 
with the house of Judah. . . In that he saith,., A new 
covenant, he hath made the first old. Now that which 
decayeth and waxeth old is ready to vanish away." In 
Hebrews 10:15-22 he says that the Holy. Ghost is witness 
that this had become a fact, and it is the "new and 
living way." 

It was not a different people, but the same people 
under a new covenant, as was promised. A new head and 
a new generation, not of carnal descent, but of the 
Spirit of God, which makes them children of God^, and 
heirs of God— branches of the true vine, 
(continued on page 110) 


- • TRANSLATION ,^. . • 

J, I. Cover 

After Adam and Eve sinned^ and were driven from the 
Garden of Eden; began a time of shame and discoiarage- 
ment; made so much more keen and of great anguish at 
the slaying of Abel Tpy Cain, Adam,, who knew and talked., 
witli the Lord, x^as now bowed down in labor and grief* 
Eve rejoiced at the birth of Seth, who was the image 
and likeness of his father. Unto Seth was born Encs 
some 235 years from the fall, and. at this time we read: 
*'Then began men to call upon the name of the Lord,'* 
Gen, ,U:26, True men and women began to worship God and 
witness for him against the forces of sin. From that 
time on unj:il the clo-se of time there will be living 
faithful witnesses for God who do not ^rield to the ways 
of sin, Enoch the seventh from Adam must have been a 
revival and -renewing of faith and worship. Up to the 
birth of Enoch there may have been but few deaths, . 
Enoch was born 600 years after the beginning, Adam, ' 
lived 300 years in Enoch's time; so there must have 
been quite . a congregation of the faithful in Enoch's 
time, Enoch was inspijred, and prophesied of the Lord, 
Jude lit. "And Enoch walked .with God after he begat 
Methuselah three hunck^ed years, and begat sons and. 
daughters: ilnd Enoch >falked with God, and he was hot 
for God took him." Gen, 5^22, 2!|. The crowning glory 
of that w^onderful age of revival and devotion which 
must have encoitt^aged, and given hope to many hearts, 
and to have the powerful demonstration of God to show 
what three hundred years of devotion to God could accom- 
plish, "By. faith Enoch was translated that he should 
not see death- « -." Heb. 11:^, 

Elijah, who lived in the wicked idolatrous age of 
Israel, who was a mighty man for God, who felt he was 
alone, and yet God revealed to him there were more than 
seven thousand faithful to God, Elijah witnessed for 
the Lord and was truly consecrated to" hira, being taken 
up in a whirlwind of glory to be with God for evermore. 
He left behind Elisha, who was a faithful and true pro- 


phet of God; with a double portion of Elijah's spirit 
upon him. In every age of tLme the living true witnes^s 
of God were not extinguished, Jesus our Lord brought 
salvation^ and revival to faithfidL hearts, and the King- 
dom of God spread. At Jesus' transfiguration, Moses 
and Elijah were seen with Jesus, and talked of his dis- 
cease. Moses, the wonderful holy man of God, who many 
time interceded for his people, but none could inter- 
cede for him when he sinned. .Was he translated? The 
living faithfiol assembly of the ages, Mores on, now 
filled with the glorious hope of the dazzling consum- 
mation of glory and power, that picks up and preserves 
all the faithful who have died along the way, and charges 
at his coming the living saints in that glorious trans- 
lation, that strikes the death knell to deaths '^For the 
Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, 
with the voice of the Archangel, and X'^ith the trump of 
God: -and the dead in Christ shall rise first j then 
we >jhich are alive and rerriain shall be caught up together 
with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air: 
and so shall we ever be with the Lord." -I Theso l|.s 16,17. 

■' '^Behold, I shew you a mystery 5 we shall not all sleep, 
but we shall be changed, in a moment, in the tvjinkling 
of an eye, at the last trump: for the truiripet shall 
sound, axnd the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and 
v/e shall be changed J' I Cor» 15:5'1, ^2. 

Changed to be alive at rest. 

Changed to be in perfect peacej . 

Changed to be with all the blest. 

Changed where pain and sci^rows cease. 

Changed to meet our risen Lord, 
Changed to know as we are known. 

Changed to hear his loving word. 
Changed his love and power to oirjn» 

Changed from, mortal, changed to shine. 
Changed to see beyond the vail; 

Changed with loving ones to dine. 
Changed with angel hosts to sail. .. 


Changed from glory to the best, 

Changed Gods image now to bearj 
Changed to be the wedding -%guest. 

Changed a crown of life to wear. . '. 

Changed from sin of Adams race, ' ' . ' ' 

Changed forever free from care. 
Changed to see Our Father's face, '; 

Ch?jiged for heavens coiintry fair. 

1160 Star Route, Sonora, Calif, 

Rudy Cover 

Prayer is our only means of communication God. 
A person who has never prayed to God, could not be ex- 
pected to know of God any more than he could a stranger 
he had never seen or spoken to. Jesus was very explicit 
when he told ns how to pray. In the 'Sermon on the 
rlount', Jesus says we should not pray as the hypocrites j 
for they love to be seen of menj not to pray as the 
heathen do, for they use vain repetitions and think they 
shall be heai^d for their Vfiaoh speaking. Jesus says when 
we pray we shouid enter our closet and when x^e have shut 
the door pray to the Father which seeth' in ^secret and he 
shall rewai'd thee openly. Concerning the Lord*s prayer 
in Matthew he says, ''After this manner therefore pray ' 
ye'* 5 and Lulie records, 'H€ien ye pray say,' 'Our Father 
which art in heaven, etc,*''. 

In individual prayer it is evident that we must pray 
to God alone in a simple, direct manner. We should know 
what we desire of God, and have faith that God will 

answer. " ^Ask and it shall be given you; seek, and 

ye shall find; knock and it shall be opened." It is un- 
reasonable to assume that God, the Father, who so lox^ed 
the world, that he gave his only begotten Son to die on 
the cross for the sins of men, would not care enough for 
his children to give them what is needful, 

"For your Father knoweth what things ye have need of, 
before ye ask him." VJe might ask, "Then why ask for 
anything?" Because the Father wants us to become acqu- 


ainted with him» He wants a close relationship with 
his children. He wants us to recognize the power for 
good that only God has; that we are helpless without 
himj that "we couldn't even exist without his life 

- giving power. "If ye shall ask anything in my naine I 
will do it," With all these promises and without a 
careful analysis, we might think "I'll ask the Lord to 
make me rich." And then viien the Lord wouldn't grant 
such a request, say to ourselves, "Just as I thought, 
what^s the use to pray anyway?" KOI This is not good 
reasoning, Jesus says to ask in his name and he doesn't 
mean just to close our prayers vjxth the formality, 'In 
Jesus naiae*, VJhen we think of a person's name, we 
think of that particular person. The likes and dislikes 
of this person and all the traits. >tiich malce up his 
character. When we petition the Father in Jesus' name^ 
we should recognise what Christ would approve of « If 

we prayed for selfish desires, and 'they were answered, 
it would' only harm our Christian life. Anything that ' 
wo\ild make us feel superior to someone else would only 
be' a hindrance to us« We should only ask for those 
-things, which are needful. Let us not be discouraged 
and give up praying, because if we do we lose the con- 
tact | we sever the very lifeline which connects us to 
the greatest power of the Universe, We can do nothing 

- of ourselves. Do we "realize >±Lat this means? Can it 
be true that we are powerless to do anything of our- 
selves? Yes, it is only too true, for "In Him we live, 
and move, and have our being," Jesus says, "Without me 
ye can do nothing," If we refuse the greatest help 
l-^^.ich is so freely offered, we only ask for tragedy. 

We must not only petition the Lord in prayer once, 
but we should continue to do so. When we ask a worthy 
cause of the Lord, we should never douDt that in due 
tirae the Lord will give us our desire. The fault of 
unanswered prayer is always with us. James says, "Ye 
ask and receive not beca\iHe ye ask amiss, that ye may 
consume it upon your lusts." In the parable of the 
1^3 us t judge: "That men ought always to praj'" and not 
€aint." Unanswered prayer can only mean that we need 
to get rid of self and selfish desires, John declares. 


"And this is the confidence that we have in him,; that,": 
if we ask anything according to his will, he heareth .^ 
us» And if we know that he heareth us, whatsoever we. ; 
ask, we know that we have the petitions that we desir^ii 
of him." 

The one syre way to be imselfish in prayer is to. .:_ 
pray for soneone else. Vuhat a prlviledge this is and 
what a benefit could be gained if we coxild only, pray - 
for one another. There is no limit to the good that ..> 
could be done through unselfish prayer 1 Am I afraid-, 
that the Lord will bless my brother above me? -If not^^ 
why not pray for him? It most certainly would noth\;irt 
me if my. brother is blessed. If I can pray for the good 
of my br.other I cannot hold him in enmity. It >Jould . 
not tal<e long till he would notice a different attitude 
from me. "Confess your* faults one to another, and pray 
one .for another, tha^t ye may be healed. The effectual 
fervent prayer of a righteous man aval leth much." 

(James 3'jl6). Jesus says, ^^^ JP^^lj for them wiich des- 

pitefully use you and persecute you . " Vmat a dif- 
ferent worla lie would have if the power of prayer was 
fully usedi 

Jesus wants us to have the very best in this life and 
he jOiOws his Father ^s way is best^ He came to do the 
Fath^'s will and made himself of no reputation. It is 
possible to ask the Lord for things that iTouldn't be^ 
good for .us and might even cause us to lose an eternal 
life with him. It is a wonderful blessing that the Lord 
will only do for his ' children what would be for their 
good, even though at times it means chastisement. "If 
ye endure chastening, God de ale th with you as sonsj for 
what son is he whom the Father chasteneth not?" 

As Jesus has promised much to the prayer of the indi- 
vidual, he also pi^omises much to the united prayer of a 
group or company together. "Again I say^ unto you, that 
if txfo of you shall agree on earth as touching anything 
that the;/ shall .ask, it shall be done for them. of. my 
Father which is in heaven. For vihere two or three are 
gathered together in ii^ name , there am I in the. midst 
of them." Vfe notice again that it is in 'Jesus name'. 
This is very important as it puts qualifications to our 


prayers* We must' have the mind of Christ before we can 
successfully ask for anything and expect to receive it*. 
It is important in united prayer that we are agreed on 
what to pray for. I do not think we need to have long 
prayers and many words^ but we should knovr what it is 
-that we ask and have faith to believe the Lord viill 
perform it. United prayer is one thing I think the 
church fails to make full use of* The promise is so 
bold that we fail to grasp the importance of its mean- 
ing. God is willing to do anything that would be to the 
betterment of us if vxe only agree together and ask him 
for it. It is j^ast that simple, Jesus wants us to 
trust implicitly in him and he has the greatest power 
there is to help us^ Through Jesus' name all things are 
possible to' him that believe th. Do you believe? . VJhy 
not? If we. gather together in the name of Jesus he 
ha.s promised to be in our midst. Think of itl Christ 
is, the head and the church is the body* It is through 
agreed prayer in 'the name of Jesus that the spirit can 
perform m.ost effectively in aj^swer to our prayers. 
Prayer should not be a formality* The power of 
prayer is a realityo 

Tuolumne, California 


The "kingdom" is basically an Old Testament idea, 
iB.ter figiu-ing largely in the teachings of Jesus. 
\*Lile it is mentioned only infrequently by the New Test- 
ament writers who addressed primarily Gentile readers 
.(an exception is Lulce, due perhaps to his sources), it 
has its counterpart in the many "Lord" and "Lord Jesus 
Christ" expressions in Paul's writings. In fact, the 
concept of authority, rule, and dominion which is 
closely bound up in these latter terms lies precisely 
at the heart of the "kingdom" idea* 

According to the letter of the New Testament, the 
rule or sphere of domination of the antagonist, the 
devil, is not even accorded the dignity of the "kingdom" 
designation* Whatever else this fact may imply, it at 
least points up clearly and unmistakable the superior 


and iinderscores the principle, in I John UtUb:", • • • 
greater is he that is in, you^ than he that is in the 
world »'" • 

The frequent association of- the "kingdom" term with 
the qualifying expressions, "of God" and "of heaven," 
serves to describe its spijritual and unworldly nature. 
As much is plainly vjritten in John 18:36: "Jesus an- 
swered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom 
were of this i^orld, then would my servants fight, that 
I shoiild not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my ' 
kingdom not from hence." 

The evidence to warrant a practical distinction be-* 
tween the expressions "of God" and "of heaven" "is' prob- 
ably not very weigiity. In the latter, Jesus was s.imply 
making Himself understandable to Jemsb. readers whose 
rather squemish emphasis upon the unapproachable majesty 
of God dictated a substitution of the word "heaven" for 
"Godi* In so doing, however, Jesus di-^ew their thoughts, 
upward to the place where God reveals His glory in per- 
fection. And furthermore. He thereby brought to cle.arer 
focus the spiritual and supernatiiral character of His 

■Tlffi KINGDOM OF &)D. In the kingdom about which Jesus 
spoke, and of xvhich Cliristians are the subjects -or mem- 
bers, God is tne supreme and controlling factor, just 
as a ruler is the supreme and controlling factor In a 
human ■ kingdom. ■ Jesus' concept of . the .kingdom was foun- 
ded on such a profoxmd and broad conviction of the abso- 
lute supremacy (kingship) of God in all things, that He 
'thought of every realm and activity in this life as a' 
possible Component of God's kingdom. This possibility, 
as we all well know, is still in the process of fulfill- 

The supernatural and heavenly character of the king- 
dom presupposes a divine dynamic. It is not inan's 
striving and achieving which xrill eventually establish 
the kingdom. Rather, vhen Satan's rule in the huuian 
heai^t ceases, and man has been overpowered by the reign 
of Christ within, then man becomes a worker with Him, 

Gradually this divine .sphere of existence, this rule 
of God in hioman hearts, this kingdom of God, is expanded. 

108 ■ " ^ • . THE PILGRIM 

A niimber of Jesus* parables aptly illustrate this as- 
pect of the kingdom. However, the "ultiiaate goal of this 
dynamic process of expansion will be reached only when 
the. kingdom comprehends the entire universe: "• • . •. 
when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall 
the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all 
things under him, that God may be all in all" (I Cor« 

THE KINGDOM OF THIS WORLD, And in the meantime? 
Yes, in the meantime, a fight, a straggle, a vying for 
man's allegiance and devotion^, Because, for all prac- 
tical purposes of discussion, there really are two 
"kingdoms.'* And the divine intervention which moves a 
man from Satan's camp to God's kingdom is truly a de- 
liverance and a translation: "VJho (God) hath delivered 
us x'rom the power of darkness, and hath translated us 
into the kingdom of his dear Son" (Col. 1:13). And 
throughout this investigation, one cannot escape the 
realization that both the persevering and expansive 
qualities of the kingdom of necessity presuppose its 
resolutely militant character^, 

■ James was inspired to v^rite very clearly on the 
reality of the two "kingdoms": "le adulterers and 
adulteresses, know ye not that the friendship of the 
world is enmity with God? (Jas. 1|:1|). In this connec- 
tion, the very faniliar words of Jesus, ". . ^ I am the 
way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the 
Father, but by me" (John lli:6)^ should probably be read 
in the light of a larger context of antagonism, rivalry, 
and competition^ One such passage with a strangely 
similar figure is this: "Enter ye in at the strait gate: 
for is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth 
to destruction, and many there be which go in thereat: 
because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, 
T4iich leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it" 
(Matt. 7:13 A^-). Might not the reference to "few there 
be that find it" imply that suffering and persecution 
are in store for the members of God's kingdom? 

THE PRESENT KINGDOM. In the kingdom of God, the 
poirfer of His forgiveness is introduced into human exper- 
ience, thus putting an end to the natiiral law of human- 

THE FILGRM- 109 - • 

ity that evil must always generate evil* In this ding- 
dom, evil is overcome by the power of Christ within 
the individual Chris tian* He experiences, through 
Christ *s atoning death, a rebirth from a natural to a • 
spiritual life: "Therefore as by the offence of one 
judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by' 
the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all 
men unto justification of life" (Rom, 5-18). 

The life -tdiich exists in the kingdom finds its ex- 
pression today in the organism of the visible church. 
In His body, the church, the work of Christ is continued 
in the world. Miereas the unregenerated man finds that 
sin is irrisistible in his life beca;use he has no 
strength to withstand it, the regenerated man has re- 
ceived through Christ and His Holy Spirit all the re- 
sources to overcome its power. And should the Christ- 
ian fall into temptation at a given point in his exper- 
ience (not a habitual practice of sin), the ministry of 
the Advocate is readily available to him x^ho confesses 
such sins: "My little children, these things write I -• 
unto you, that ye, sin not. And if any man sin, we have 
an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous" 
(I John 2:1), 

THE FaTUilE KINGiDM^ The present kingdom is charac- 
terized by struggle and conquest, and it precedes the 
final kingdom, which will be a settled and permanent 
state. The second coming of Christ will not usher in 
the kingdom but will consummate it, "For^ behold, the 
kingdom of God is within you" (Luke 17:21b), "Within 
you" might better be translated, "among you or in your 
midst," Surely the Pharisees, to whom Jesus was speak- 
ing, did not have the kingdom WITHIN them. In any case 
it is plain that the kingdom is a present reality. 
"From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say. Re- 
pent: for the kingdom, of heaven is at hand" (Matt, U:17). 
The tense here denotes completed action," and the force 
of the phrase is that the kingdom is invisible j but just 
as surely as harvest is a visible process, so mil the 
future aspect or consummation of the kingdom be visible, 

— Gospel Herald, 1955 

no . • THE. PILGRIM 

(THE TRUE VINE— continued from page 100) 
Vftien this faithfial remnaxit of carnal Israel, then, 
was born again— begotten again in Christ the true vine, 
they became Spiritual Israel, not figuratively but in 
reality » And the twelve apostles were ordained to be- ■ 
come the new heads or princes of a reborn Israel j as 
Jesus had said to them before, "le also shall sit upon 
twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel." 

/Therefore Jesus said to them, "I am the true vine 
and my Father is the husbandman. Every branch in me 
that beareth not fruit he taketh away: and every branch 
that beareth fruit, he purgeth it, that it may bring. 
forth more fruit. . . as the branch cannot bear fruit 
of itself, except it abide in the vine^ no more can 
ye, except ye abide in me. I am the vine, ye are the 
branches • . « Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen 
you, that ye should go and bring forth fruit, and, that 
your fruit should remain." 

, . This . symbol of the vine and its fruit seems to give 
added significance to the "cup" which Jesus gave to his 
disciples in the uijper room. He said, "For this is my 
blood of tlie new testament (covenant) which is shed for 
many for tlie remission of sins." The crovming excell- 
ence of the new covenant was that in it sins would be 
forgiven (Heb. 10:10:22). Christ is the true vine, 
and the cup, which is the fruit of the vine, reT>resented 
his blood which v/as shed for the remission of sins. So 
^ih Christ are begatten innumerable children unto Godr— 
"the "fruit which remains" of the true vine— the "Israel 
of God." 

The apostle Paul in closing his epistle to the Gala- 
tians on this subject, says, "For in Christ Jesus neither 
circ-umcision availeth anything, nor uncircumcision^ . but 
a new creature. And as many as walk according to tMs 
t-ule, peace be on them, and mercy, and upon the Israel 
of God."_D.F.W. 


Oaring to imusual demands upon our time, and otir conten^slated 
absence from homo during the first part of June, vre are combin- 
ing the my and j^nie numbers in this issue. Vve earnestly be^ 
ymr forbearance in this matter.— Editor ' 



In 1 Peter 1: 18-19> Peter refers to redemption in 
the context of "the precious blood of Christ, as of a 
lamb without blemish and without spot," In the trans- 
action of Calvary, Christ "gave himself for us ^ that • 
he might redeem us from all iniquity, • • ." (Titus 2:11^) 

The cost of the believer *s redemption can be seen ' 
only in the context of sin which involves both man's 
nature and his actions. Adam*s sin brought guilt -r 
before God, It broke fellowship with God'. It result- ' 
ed in the moral corruption of the race and the inabil- 
ity of man to solve his own problem. Consequently, 
the cost of redemption was great. The potential re- 
demption of all men from bondage demanded a price 
commensurate with hinnan depravity. 

The reclaiming of a soul by God is possible only . 
because of his redeir^tive purposes • God takes the 
initiative. He buys back. In this transaction. 
Calvary is central. The atonement is the heart of the . 
Gospel. Man is forgiven and redeemed. God and man 
are reconciled. . • . 

One of the practical implications of redemption is 
eternal life. Eternal life begins here and now and is 
extended into the future after death permits man to 
break out of his physical existance. It is not the e 
end of life but makes an extension of life possible. 
It is a transaction in life within the context of 
fellowship with God. It is the freeing of the inner 
personality to fellowship more fully with God, 

The teachings of Jesus indicate that those who accept 
him by faith will be granted eternal life. Eternal 
life beyond death or in the future state will not be 
threatened by a desperate struggle for existance. It 
will be secure in that the limitations of earthly ex- 
istance will no longer frustrate the individual* "And 
this is life eternal, that they might know thee the 
only true God, and Jesus Christ,, whom thou hast sent." 

. ■ —College Monthly 

112 - ■ - THE PILGRIM 

(Condensed' from the lecttires of C. G, Finney, ISUS)'' 

Tin: cciiDiTions or this aitabjisit. 

1« A state of entire sanotlfi cation can never be attained 
by an indifferent TKdtirig, of God's time* 

?• Nor by any works of lavr, or works of any kind, performed 
in your ovm strength^ irrespective of the grace of God» By this 
I d© not mean, that, ,^srere you disposed to exert your natural 
powers aright, you could not at once obey the law in the exer-* 
oise of your natural strength, and continue to do et'« But I 
do mean, that as you are ^olly indisposed to use your natural 
powers aright, v?ithcut the grace of Gad, no eff 03rts that you 
mil actually make in ycur ovm strength^ or independent of his 
grace, -will ever result in ycur entire sanctification^ 

Not by any direct efforts to feel right* Many spend their. 
time in vain efforts' to force themselves into a right state of 
feeling* Now, it should be for ever understood, th^t religion 
does not consist in a mere feeling, emotion, or involuhtary 
affection of any kind* Feelings do hot result from a -direct 
effort to feel. But, on the contrary, they are the spontaneous 
actings of the mind, when it has under its direct and deep con- 
sideration the objects, trutlis, facts, or realities, that are 
correlated to these involuntary emotions. They are the most 
easy and natural state of mind^Dossible under such circumstances. 
So far from its requiring an effort to put them forth, it would 
rather^ require an effort to prevent them, when the mind is 
intensely considering those objects and considerations which 
have a natural tendency to produce them* This is s.o tr^ae, that 
When^-persons are in. the exercise of such affections, they feel 
no diff^^culty at all in their exercise, but wonder how any one 
can help feeling as 'they don It seems to them so natural, so 
eas2/^ and, I inaay say, so almost unavoidable, that they often 
feel and express astonishment, that any cne should find it 
difficult, to exercise the feelings of ^-^ioh they are conscious* 
The Course that many persons take en the subject af religion, 
has r. often 'appeared wonderful to me^ They make themselves, their 
own state and interests, the central point, around ^ich their 
ovm minds are continually revolving* Their selfishness is so 
great, that their cwn interests, happiness,, and salvation, fill 
their whole field cf vision. And with their thoughts and anxie- 
ties,, and whole souls, clustering around their own salvatien, 
they complain of a hard heart, that- they cannot love God, that 
they do not repent, and cannot believe* They manifestly regard 
love to God, repentance, faith, and all religion, as consisting 
m mere feelings* Being conscious tnat they do not feel right, 
as they express it, they are the more concerned about themselves. 
Which concern by increases their embarrassment, and the diffi- 
culty of exercising what they call right affections* The less 
they feel, the more they try to feel— the greater efforts they 


make to feel right mthout success, the more are they confirmed 
in their selfishness, and the more are their thoughts glued to 
their bisn iiaterests; and they are, of course," at a greater and 
greater distance from any right state of mind ♦ Md. thus their 
selfish anxieties beget ineffectual efforts, and these efforts 
but deepen their anxieties* -And if , in this state, death should 
appear in a visible form before them, or the last trumpet sound, 
and they should be summoned to the soleim judgment, it mitild but 
intjrease their distraction, confirm, and almost give amnipotence 
to their selfishness, and render their sanctifioation morally. 
impossible* It should never be forgotten, that all tmxe reli- 
gion consists in voluntary states of mind, and that the true and 
only -way to attain to true religion, to to look at and under^ 
stand the exact thing to be done, and then to put forth at tnoe 
the voluntary exercise required. 

Not by any efforts to obtain grace hy works of law. 

Should the question be proposed to a Jew, "^Vhat shall I do 
that I may work the work of God?" he would answer. Keep the law, 
both moral and ceremonial; that is, keep the commandments* 

1*0 the same inquiry an Arminian would answer. Improve common 
grace, and you mil obtain converting grace; that is, use the 
means of grace according to the best light you have, and you 
•will obtain the grace of salvation* In this answer it is" not 
supposed, that the inquirer already has faith; but that he is in 
a state of unbelief, and is inquiring after converting grace. 
The answer, therefore, amounts to this; you must get converting 
grace by your impenitent vforks; you mast" become holy by your 
hypocrisy; you must work out sanctifioation by sin# 

To. this question, -most professed Calvinists would make in 
substance the same reply. They would reject the language, 
: while they retained the idea* Their direction would imply, 
either that the inquirer already has faith, or that he must per- 
form some works to obtain it, that is, that he must obtain grace 
by works of law, 

A late Calvinistic writer adnits that entire and permanent 
sanctifioation is attainable, although he rejects the idea of 
the actual attainment of such a state in this life* He supposes 
the condition of attaining this Etate cr the way to attain it , ' 
is by a diligent use of the means of grace, and that the saints 

. are sa^nctified just so far as they make adiligent use of the 
means of sanctifioation. But as he denies, that any saints ever 
did or mil use all the means with suitable diligence, he denies 

. also, of course, that entire sanctifioation ever is attained in 
thxs life. The way of attaining it, according to his teaching, 
is^ by the diligent use of means. If then this writer were 
asked, 'N/hat shal 1 1 do that I may work the works of God?"~or 
m other words T^feat shall I do to obtain 'entire aid peimanent 
sanctification? his answer, it seems, would be: ''Use diligently 
all the means of grace;" that is, you must get grace by works. 


or, mth the Armlnian, improve coirmon grace ^ and you mil secure 
sanctifying grace. Neither an Arminian> nor a Galvinist, wottld 
formally direct the inquirer to the law, as the ground of justi— 
fication» But nearly the whole church would give' directions 
that would amcunt to the same thing, Their answer would be a 
legal and not a gospel answer. For whatever answer, is given 
to this question, that does not distinctly recognize faith 
as. the condition of abiding holiness in Christians, is legal. 
Unless the inquirer is'mkde to understand, that this is the 
first, grand, fundamental duty, without the performance of which 
all virtue, all giving up of sin, all acceptable obedience, is 
impossible, he is misdirected. He is led to believe that it is 
possible to please God without faith, and ot obtain grace by 
works of law» There are but two kinds of works— works of lavf, 
and works of faith* How, if the inquirer has not the "faith 
that works by love," to set him upon any course of work@ to get 
it, is certainly to set him to get faith by vrorks of law. Yfcat- 
'ever is said to him that does not clearly convey the truth, 
that both justification and sanctif ication are by faith, mthout 
* works of law, is law, and not gospel. Nothing before or mthout 
faith, can possibly be done by any one, but Y/orks cf law. His 
first du'ry, therefore, is faith; and every attempt to obtain 
faith by unbelieving works, is to lay works at the foundation,. 
and nffijce grace a result. It is the direct opposite of gospel 

Take facts as the}'' arise in every day*s experience to show 
that what I have stated is true of almost all professors and non- 
professors. Whenever a sinner begins in good earnest to agitate 
the question, "^?hat shall I do to be saved?" he resolves as a 
first duty, to break off from his sins, that is, in imbelief* 
Of course, his reformation is only outward, ' He determines to do 
better— to. reform in this, that, and the other thing, and thus 
prepare himself to be converted* He does not expect to be saved 
mthout grace and faith, but he attemj^ts to get grace by works 
of la?f. The sarie is true of multitudes of anxious Christians, 
who are inquiring what they shall do to overcome the world, the 
llesh, and the devil. They overlook the fact, that "this is 
the victory that overcometh the world, even our faith," that it 
IS mtii the shield of faith" they are "to quench all the fiery 
darus of the wicked," They ask, Vfliy am I overcome bv sin? Miv 
can Tnot get above its po^er? Why am I thus the slave of my " 
appetites and passions, aid the sport of the devH ? They oast 
about for the cause of all this spiritual wretchedness and death. 
At one time, they think they have discovered it in the neglect 
of one duty; and at aa other time in the neglect . of another. 
Sometimes they imagine they have f o^ond the cause to lie in yield- 
ing to one temptation, and sometimes in yielding to another^ 
1 hey put forth' efforts in this direction, and in that direction, 
and patch up their righteousness on one side, while they make a 
rent in the other side. Thus they spbnd years in running round 
"^"^ \^J^°-^!' ^"^"^ miing dams of sand across the current of their 
oMi^ habitudes and tendencies. Instead of at once purifying 
their hearts by faith, they are engaged in trying to arrest the 


overflovdng of the bitter waters of their owi pr opens it ies» Miy 
do I sin? they inquire; and casting about for the cause, they 
come to the sage conclusion. It is because I neglect such a duty,, 
tiiat is, because I do sin« But how shall I get rid of sin? 
Answer: By doing my duty, that is, by ceasing from sin. Now 
the real inquiry is. Why do they neglect their duty? "Why do they 
commit sin at all? "Where is the foundation of all this misohief? 
Will it be replied, the foundation of all this wickedness is the 
force of temptation— in the weakness of our hearts— in the 
strength of our evil propensities andhabits? But all this only 
brings us back to the real inquiry again. How are these things 
to be overcome? I answer, by faith alone* No works of law have 
the least tendency to overcome our sins; but rather to confirm 
the soul in self— righteousness and unbelief* 

The great and fundamental sin, which is at the foundation of 
all other sin, is imbelief * The first thing is, to give up that— 
to believe the word of God* There is no breaking off from one 
sin without this* "Whatsoever is not of faith is sin." "Mthout 
faith it is impossible to please God," Thus we see, that the 
backslider and convicted sinner, when agonising to overcome sin, 
will almost, always betake themselves to works of law to obtain 
faith. They will fast, and pray, and read, and struggle, and 
outwardly reform, and thus endeavor to obtain grace* Nor?/* all 
this is vain and wrong* Do 5^011 ask, shall we not fast, and pray, 
and read, and str^jggle? Shall we do nothing b^^t sit down in anti- 
nomian security and inaction? I answer, you maist do all that 
God commands you to do; but begin Y^ere he tells you to begin, 
and do it in the manner in which he commands you to do it; that 
is, in the exercise of that faith that vforks by love. Purify 
yox:r hearts by faith. Believe in the Son of God. And say 
not in your heart, "^^o shall ascend into heaven, that is to 
bring Christ down from above; or who shall descend into the deep, 
that is, to bring up Christ again from the dead. But what saith 
it? The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart, 
that is, the word of faith wMoh we preach." Noyt" these facts 
shoyr, tnat even under the gospel, almost all professors of re- 
ligion, v/hile they reject the Jemsh notion of justification by 
works of law, have after all adopted a ruinous substitute for it, 
and suppose, that in some way they are to obtain grace by their 
works * ^ 

^ A state of entire sanctifi cation cannot be attained by attenrt- to copy the experience of others. It is very conanon for 
convicted sinners, or for Christians inquiring after entire sane- 
tificaxion, in their blindness, to ask others to relate their 
experience, to mark minutely the detail of at 1 their exercises, 
and then set them.selves to pray for, and make direct efforts to 
attain the same class of exercises, not seeming to understand, 
lltl ^k""^ ''^'' ?° rf?, ^^^^^^se feelings in the detail like others, 
than they can look like others. Human experiences differ as 
human countenances differ. ' (to be continued) 




: •■■..PHILOSOPHY. A dispute had divided the Church during 
the second century^ as to the propreitjr of ..adopting, in . 
its contests- with the heathen, -the weapons df philow 
Sophy, and it was finally decided by the authority of 
Origen, and the superior loquacity of the philosophical 
party« By this condescension the Chj^is ti an s gained- 
great advantages in the display of argument, in subtlety 
of investigation^ in- plausibility of conclusion, in the 
..abuse and even in the use of reason; but they lost that 
manly and simple integrity of disputation which well 
became, in spite of its occasional rusticity, the de- 
fender of truth. It is to this alliance "that some are 
disposed to trace the bii^th of those pious frauds which 
cover the face of ecclesiastical history. The original 
soiarce of this evil was at least. free from any stain 
or sham.e^ It had long, been a practice among ancient 
philosophical writers to ascribe their works to some 
name of undisputed authority, in order to secure atten^ 
tion to their opinions, though the opinions were well 
known to be only those of the writer; but the consequ- 
ences which flowed from it have infected the Chin-ch of 
^- Christ with some of its deepest and most dangerous 
pollutions^ Books written in later ages were zealously 
circulated as the writings of the Apostles, or of the 
Apostolical Fathers, The works of these last were ' 
^altered or interpolated, according to the notions of 
after times or tue caprices of tne' interpolator; but •; 
usually for the purpose of proving the antiquity of 
some new opinion, some innovation in discipline, some 
usurpation in authority^ The practice was justified 
by the detestable, but popular principle, 'that truth 
may be defended by falsehood; '* it was encouraged by the 
difficulties of detection in ignorant ages; and it con- 
tinued for more than six centuries to disgrace the 
• Roman Church.. . It was the same principle, pushed a 
little farther, which was stained the writings of so 


many among the early Fathers with statements at least 
doubtfial, if not with palpable falsehood. But, on the 
other hand, we shoiild ever recollect that Christianity 
in those days was chiefly in the hands of Greeks and 
Africans, men of subtle intellects and violent pass- 
ions, whose habits and whose climate too often carried . 
them into the extreme either of metaphysical sophistry : 
or wild enthusiasm— men who could speculate on their 
faith, or who could die for it, but who were little 
calculated for the tranquil equanimity of sober and 
reasonable belief. We should recollect also, that some 
of our best and coinrrionest principles of action xfere 
then unknown or partially received; and that, in fact, 
many of them are the result of the patient operation 
of Christianity on the huaiian character, thi^ough a long, 
succession of ages, ¥e shall never do justice to the 
history of ovcc religion, unless we continually bear in 
mind the low condition of society and morals existing 
among the people to whom it was first delivered. 

During the concluding part of the second century, a 
philosophical sect arose at Alexandria, who professed 
to form their own tenets, by selecting and reconciling 
-what was reasonable in the tenets of all others, and 
rejecting what was contrary to reason— they were called 
the new Platonics, or Eclestics, ^^at they professed , 
respecting philosophy, they easily extended to religion, 
since with them religion was entirely founded on philo- 
sophical principles. It is strange that the great foun- 
der of this sect, Aiiomonius Saccas, had been educated 
in Christianity! and he seems never to have abandoned 
the name of the faith, while he was disparaging its doc« 
trines and its essence, A sect, which was f o-onded on 
the seductive principle of universal concord, soon made 
extraordinary progress. In his eminent disciple Ploti- 
nus, Ammonius left a successor not inferior to himself 
in subtlety of genius, and power of profound and abstr- 
use investigation! and next to Polotinus in age and re- 
putation, is the celebrated name of Porphyry, The 
efforts of these philosophers were for the most part 
directed against Christianity, and the contest was 
waged with great ardor during the third century. But 


as Origen and his scholars, on the one hand, adopted 
into the service of religion some of the peculiar prin- 
ciples .of . their adversaries, so, on the other, certain 
disciples of Plotinus assumed the name and professed 
the faith of Christians, at the same time that they 
retained some favorite opinions of their master; ah 
accession which was only valuable in so far as it swgI- 
led„,the body : and increased the lustre of the chiirch, . 

. MILLEIJNIUI-'U It has been to hastily asserted by 
some historians, and too readily admitted by others, 
that the expectation of the Millennium, or presence "of 
Christ on earth to reign -^ath his elect, vjas the "uni- 
versal opinion of the ancient church© The fair state- 
ment of that much -disputed question appears to bo this; 
— Eusebius.' informs us that Papias, ^ainong certain par- 
ables and sermons of the Saviour, and other seemingly 
fabulous records which he professed to have received 
traditionally said, that- there would be a thousand 
years after the resurrection of the dead, duidng which 
Christ was to reign bodily upon the earth; in which I • 
think that he misunderstood the apostolic narrations, 
not penetrating what was m;?'stically spoken by them; 
for he appears to. have been exceedingly limited in 
understanding, as one may conjecture from his discoiirses© 
The historian then proceeds to attribute the general 
reception of this opinion among ecclesiastics, and 
pai-'ticularly by Irenaeus, to theja' respect for *the 
antiquity of the man,'' To Papias, then, we may attri- . 
bute the origin of the belief. (Editor ^s Note: This 
stp.tement should be received mth great caution, in 
view of Revelation, 20th chapter.) It was first adoptea 
by Justin liartyr, next by Irenaeus, and connected by 
both of them mth the resuj^rection of the flesh. But 
the passage of the latter plainly declares *that there 
were some in the. chui^ch, in divers nations and by var- 
ious workS', who, believing,- do consent with the just, 
who /do yet endeavor to turn these things into metaphors;* 
which; proves that even the orthodox were divided on the 
question at that early age, though the names, of the,, 
disputants have not reached us. The f ir-st distinguished 
opponent of the doctrine was' Origen, who attacked it 


with great earnestness and ingenuity,, and seems, in 
spite of some opposition, to have thrown it into gen- 
eral discrediti and, probably, we shall not have occa- 
sion to notice the opinion again until we arrive at the 
tenth centiiry. (Editor's Note: While Origen. is re-^ 
corded as one of the great church "fathers", yet his- 
tory clearly shows that he was very instrumental and 
effective in introducing many of the. errors and corrup^. 
tion of heathen philosophy into the early church.) , 

— Waddington's Hisotry of the. Church, 


■ Oft when I feel my engine swerve 
.As o*er strange rails we fare, 
I strain my eyes aroimd the curve 
For what awaits us there,. 
. ■ When sx^ift and free she carries me 
Through yards unknown at night, 
I look along the line to see 

That all the lamps are white, , , 

The blue light markes the crippled car. 

The green light signals slow; 
. ' ' The red light is the danger light. 

The white light, "Let her go." '" ' '..! 
Again the open fields we roam. 

And when the night is fair, • 
I look up in the starry dome ,. . 

And wonder what's up there, . .... . .^ 

For who can speak for those who dwell 

Behind the curving sky? 
No man has ever lived to tell • .^ *. 

Just what it means to die. 
Swift toward life's terminal I trend j 

The run seems short tonight j 
God only knows what ' s at . the end — 

I hope the lamps are white^ 

— Cj Warman, ' • . ' , 
- • ■ * The engineer poet. 


,■ : '- . : . ' ^ BIBLE" STUDY . ' ^ \ '.^ .' 
/'"; ' ' . -PHILEMON- • . ■ . ;-;.,^ 

■ ■ The apostle Paiil, a prisoner in .Rome ^ myites this. V- 
short letter to Philemon^, a dearly beloved fellow- 
lab<jurer» H^" sends his usual greeting of love and 
concern, which is foimd in most of his letters: 

"""Grace to you, arid peace, from God our Father and 
the i^ord Jesus Christy" 

The salutation of the aged apostle must have been 
very inspiring to the Christian household to whom it 
was sent. He commends their good works, and says he 
makes mention" of them always in his prayers. 

This is a personal letter, yet we notice it in- 
cludes the "ch-orcfi in. thy house." The church at this 
place must have been small* 

Paul writes, to philemon concerning one of his 
servants, Onesimus, who had departed for a season, 
but who. now has liad a change of heart. .Paul speaks 
of him as his son whom he has . begotten in his bonds. 
This evidently means he was converted by Paul while 
in prison and -no doubt ministered to him Hhile in bonds < 

Now that Onesimus is a Christian Paul advised him 
to return to his master,, and sends this letter, not 
commanding, but beseeching his master to receive him 
kindly, and with the beautiful thought, "Not as a 
servant,, out above .a servant, a brother beloved." 

QUESTIONS: ^n '^^ '' "■' ' ■ •--■•- 

1. What were Philemon's good characteristics 
m.entio.ned l^ Paul? ";.:'■, 

2. How was Philemon invited to: receive Onesimus, 
By force, or willingly? ... ■ : 

3* Mio would pay any debts which had been made? 

... . ■' '. *" ^ — S.M.W. 


VOL. 7 JULY. I960 NO, 7 

*Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain 
from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul." 1 Peter 2: 1 1 


lAlhat honor has my Savior 
Upon my life bestowed, 

As day by day I joiirney 
Along life's imlmo>ni road; 

For He, the King of Glory, 
Calls me His friend to be, . 

And I may walk with Jesus 
And He mil walk with me^ . 

IfJhat wondrous light illumines 
This little life of mine. 

As vrords that He has spoken 
Aci^oss my pathway ■ shine J 

Though smooth it be or rugged, 
I pBCSs on truthfully J 

For I may walk with Jesus, 
And He will walk with m'e, 

VJhat glory does His promise 
To my poor life thus lend 

That He will be my comrade 
E^en to my journey »s endj 

And all of life grows holy 

In Jesus ' company; 
For I may walk with Jesus, 

And He will walk with me. 
— Selected 

THE PlLGRiM Is a religious magazine published monthly by Daniel F. Wolf in the 
interests of the members of The Old Brethren Church. Subscription rate: $1.50 per year. 
Sample copies sent free on request. Address: THE PILGRIM, Rt. 3, Box 1378, Modesto, Calif. 


(Editor's note: -This is the first of three or foior 
articles on the subject of Annual Meeting and Councils, 
by the editor for the Pilgrim.) 

There may be many persons in the Old Order Dunker 
Church who suppose that the chuxch has always had an 
"Annual Meeting"—- at least ever since the Jerusalem 
Council as recorded in Acts 1$ — and suppose that meet- 
ing to be tlie precedent and pattern for "Annual Meeting" 
as we know it now* Also it seems to be ass"umed by manj 
that the events recorded in Acts 15 occured in close 
connection with the outpouring of the Holy Spirit as 
recorded in Acts 2, and by thus closely relating the 
two events a? to timB and ptirpose the feeling and ex- 
pectation seems to prevail that in some manner there 
can be a special diffusion of the Holy Spirit on this 
occasion, once a year, which gives the church increased 
power to deal with both new and continuing problems. 

Annual Meeting simply means to meet once a jrear* 
Practically all business corporations have an annual 
meeting, where officers are elected, and other business 
that pertains to the corporate body are transacted^ 
Therefore the terra in itself has no religious signifi- 
cance * 

But "Annual Meeting" in the Dunker Church has a 
great religious significance. Some other terms used 
to describe this meeting are: "Annual Conference," 
"General Conference," "Convention,'.^ "Yearly Meeting^" 
"Yearly Council," etc. Though these words are loosely 
used to describe Annual Meeting in the Dunker Church, 
and appear to be syxionymous, yet when used in their 
proper sense may indicate somewhat different proceed- 

As already stated. Annual Meeting simply means to 
meet annually or once a year. The purpose or nature 
of the meeting ia not indicated. General Conference 
describes a particular kind of meeting, in that it 


indicates that the meeting is for conference ^ but does 
not say when nor how oftenj it could be yearly or semi- 
annually or biennial or once in five years (as is the 
order of some churches) # The word Conference does 
not indicate an authorative assembly, "Convention'^ 
usually indicates a body composed of representative 
delegates with delegated authority to transact the 
business of the whole corporate body, "Council," 
when applied to chiirch assemblies indicate an author- 
ative body. It may be local, or Provincial (of a 
certain province or territory) ^ or a general council, 
which a body of representatives of all the ehurches 
in the recogni2ied brotherhood throughout the world. 
These last named are called Ecumenical Councils in 
chxarch histories, which means universal councila, 
where representatives of all the recognized churches 
throughout the world meet in an authorative council to 
examine matters of doctrine and conduct of all Christen- 
dom, and issue decrees and orders concerning the same. 
The first such Gh-orch coimcil ever held was in 325 A. D, 
at Nicea, and was called and presided over by the 
Emperor Constantine, 

Historians are agreed in passing over the Jerusalem 
Coxmcil as having no connection with these general 
church councils in the Nicean and middle ages— and 
revived to a considerable extent in many chux^ches 
since the Reformation* 

We are told that "council" is a latin word, and 
"Synod" is a Greek word which means the same thing. 

The reason the Jerusalem Council is passed over by 
the historians as having no connection with the general 
councils of later ages is stated in a foot note in 
.Mosheim's History on the subject of "Councils," as 
follows : 

The meeting of the Church of Jerusalem mentioned 
in the l^th chapter of the Acts, is commonly con- 
sidered the first Christian coiancil. But this 
notion arises from a manifest abuse of the word 
COUNCIL. That meeting was only of one church; 
and if such a meeting be called a council, it 

vjill follow that there were inniimerable cotmcils 
in the priinitive timeB. But^ every one knows, 
,; :■ that a COUNCIL is an assembly of deputies, or 
commisioners, sent from several churches, assoc- 
iated by certain bonds in a general body, and 
therefore the supposition above mentioned falls 
. to the ground* . . • , . • . . . . 

it is generally accepted that the^ meeting at Jeru- 
salem occ-ured about- 2,0 years after Pentecost, and 
about 10 years after the first- Gentile converts were 
received into .the Churchy Due consideration' for the 
history of the- Ghui'ch in the 20 years previous to that 
meeting, as recorded in the first fourteen chapters 
of .Ae1>s, .and/;a thoughtful study of the l^th chapter, 
will.;. show that it was not a regular or annual meeting, 
as* there, is .no re.cord.of any such meetings before or 
after it; although, some of the apostles remained mth 
€hem for a considerable time af ter ♦ And it cannot 
properly be .called a- "general Council" because there 
is no indication that any of the other churches in the 
Christian Brotherhood were notified, or sent represen- 

'tatives to that meeting, except the-chui^ch at Antioch; 
and they were the ones who brought the question 

In the chapters preceeding the .IS'th of Acts, it will 
be seen that the events in the l^th occured after Paul 
and Barnabas returned to Antioch from their first 
missionary .journey; that on that journey they had es- 
stablished churches in .Cyprus^ in Perga and Atalia in 
Pamphilia; jmtioch in Pisidia, and. Iconi-uia, lystra, 
and Derbe in Lyconium, • Also the Samaritans had received 
the Word, and there vjere disciples in Joppa amd Caesarea. 
let' there is no indication that any of these churches 

.were notified or represented at the Jerusalem meeting 
of the apostles and elders with the Jerusalem Church ♦ 
It cannot be said that- these churches were not fully 
organised, because in chapter 1)^:23 it is said, that 
they had "ordained them elders in every chtxrch," Thus 
it can be seen why the historians "pass over" the 
Jerusalem Meeting (Acts 1^) as having no connection 
with tlie "later- development a" : 


The meeting at Jerusalem was, however, a most im- 
portant and necessary meeting, where the chosen twelve, 
to whom Jesus entrusted the oversight and direction 
of the New-born community called the Church, were called 
upon to decisde how much, if any, of the law of Moses 
was to be retained in the New Covenant fellowship. 

It is our belief that in one area only can the 
meeting at Jerusalem (Acts 1^) be a precedent for our 
Erotherhood conferences, which is: The right and ex- 
pediency of the churches in the Brotherhood to coimsel 
together regarding problems which may arise that is of 
conmon interest to them* But the most iiiportant and 
fundamental difference between the meeting at Jerusalem 
and our Aiuiual Meetings or Brotherhood conferences^ is: 
The nature of the question or business that 'was brought, 
and the manner of decision that was made— the "decrees" 
that vjere delivered TO, BE KEPT. 

They were fiilly aware 'that the decision which was . - 
made vjas of the Holy Ghost, so that they could say, 
"It seemed good unto the Holy Ghost, and to us« » ." 
With this assurance they could make decrees x^rhich were 
' delivered to the churches "for to keep*" Acts 16:U. 
Those decrees have been kept ever since that time and 
are still bdLng kept in the Chxirch of Jesus Christ. 
Time has proven the divine authority of the decision 
that was made, and the validity of the claiiTi of those 
who delivered it. It was not the kind of decision 
that had need of, or was subject to, "repeal" by somfe 
later council . -« D .F .W. Next : CHURCH COUNCILS 

Sow thy seed, be never weary. 
Let no fears thy soul annoy. 

Be the prospect ne'er so dreary, 
Thou Shalt reap the fruits of joy. 

Lo, the scene of verdxB?e brightening! 

See the rising grain appear. 
Look again J The fields are iriiitening. 

For the harvest time is near. 

— Selected 


J. I. Cover 

*^B-at the rest of the dead lived not again until the 
thousand years were finished. This is the first resur- 
rection. Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the 
fix'st resurrection: on such the second death hath no 
power ^ but they shall be priests of God and of Clirist^ 
and shall reign with him a thousand years," Rev. 20:^^6. 

"And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and 
death and hell delivered up the dead lAilch were in 
them, ajid they were judged according to their works." 
Rev. 20:13, 

The term "Last Resurrection" is used in comparison 
to the fjxst Resurrection quoted above. At the last 
resui-^recticn all are raised to life who h^ld to wait a 
thousand years longer than those who came to life and 
glory at the first resurrection. 

The last resurrection, beyond the round of life and 
death to all mankind shows in x-his wonderful way Goa's 
remembrance of every one that ever came into existance 
upon this eai-^txij showing his cax*e ana conern; that 
while "Leath has passed upon all because all have sin- 
ned; yet because of all the variety of times, places, 
ages, and conditions that laankind has lived under, his 
consideration and fairness be shoT^jn. to all according 
to the books that have been vo^itten— the record of every 
life. This can be accomplished by raising all to life 
in the first and last resurrections, and fulfills the 
V/ord of God, "For since by raan cairie death, by man carae 
also the resurrection of the deado For as in Adam all 
die, so in Christ shall all be made alive." I Ccr. 15^: 
21, 22. 

Being raised to life by the last resLu^rection does 
not necessarily mean eternal life, which is given on 
condition as we read: "My sheep hear my voice, and I 
know them and they follow me; and I give unto them eter- 
nal life and they shall never perish, neither shall any 
many pluck them out of my hand." And whosoever was not 
found written in the book of life was cast into the lake 


of fire." And there shall in no wise enter into it any- 
thing that defileth^ neither whatsoeyer worketh abomin- 
ation^ or maketh a lie; but they which are wirtten in 
the Lambs book of life. It is evident that all/i4io will 
be found written in the Book of Life will have eternal 

VJhatever the lot and condition awaiting all mankind^ 
it must be a wonderful experience to leave the abodes 
of death^ and again be quickened to life and full con- 
sciousness; Although the bar of judgment is ahead, and 
beyond looms the propect of expanding eternal life or 
the shrinking process of dissolution— The Second Death, 

Every race and nation, 
IJvery face and station; 

Comes to life at God^s cormiand* 
Every dark bad story^ 

Every deed of glory; . •. 

HI are seen at God*s deinand* 

Every page before him^ 
Every age adore him; 

Views of past and then anew. 
Every face of wonder. 
Every grace or bloxnder; 

Stand at last in keen reivew. 

Every kind of sadness, 
• ■ Every find of badness; 

Mil of ill we then bemoan o 
Every way of greatness, 
Every day of lateness; 

ALl the bad we wculd disown* 
Every kin now being. 

Every sin now seeing; . * 

jU.1 of life at bar \inseal« 
Every act reviewing. 
Every fact renewing; 

Come to face and truth reveal. 

Every state in standing. 
Every fate in landing; 

Now to see life grand afar« 
Every one to tremble. 
Every son assemble; 

New to see death's gate ajar. 

-— ^Ssnora, California 
Next: Eternal Jiadgment 

128 * THE PILGR3I4 

D» A. Skiles 

Around tx^^o thousand years B.C. God spake to Abram ' 
:(v±io was later called Abraham) "Get thee cut of thy 
country^ and from thy kindred, and from thy father *s' / 
house, unto a land that I vriLll show thee: and I mil 
,iTiake of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and 
make thy name great j and thou shalt be a blessing: and 
I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that 
curseth thee: and in thee shall all the families of the 
earth be blessed," Gen^, 12:l-iu "And Abram departed 
a.s the Lord had spoken unto him." "And the Lord appear- 
ed unto Abram and said. Unto thy seed will I give this 
land." (VJhich was '.the land of "And the Lord 
said unto' Abram, after, that, Lot was seperated from him. 
Lift up now thine eyes, and look from the place where 
thou art northward^ and southward, and eastward, and 
westward: for all the land irdiich thou seest, to thee 
will I give it, and to, thy seed for ever. And. I will 
make thy seed as the dust .of the earth: so that if a 
man can n\ii?iber tne dust of the eartn, then shall thy 
see also be numberrd." Oh. 13:lU-l6. "And he brought 
him forth abroad, and said. Look now toward heaven, 
and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them: 
and he said unto him, so shall thy seed be." Gen. I5s5« 
Verse 18, "In the same day the lord made a covenant with 
Abram saying', Unto thy seed have 1 given this land^ 
from the river of Egyi^t unto the great river, the river 
Euphrates." "And I mil make thee exceeding fruitf^ol^ 
and i vjill make nations of thee, and kings shall come 
out of thee, and Ivill establish my covenant between 
me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations 
for an everlasting covenant, to be a God unto thee, and 
to thy seed after thee. And I will give unto thee, 
and to thy seed after 'thee, the land ^n ere in thou art 
a stranger, all the land of Canaan,- for an everlasting 
possession: and 1 will be their God." Gen. 17:6-9« 

The foregoing promises from God to Abraham were 
never revoked, nor as yet terminated in fiill, and so 


must await future coirgDlete fulfillment^ for in Numbers 
23t 19 we read, "God is not a man, that he should liej 
neither the son of man that he should repent: hath he 
said, and shall he not do it? or hath he spoken, and 
shall he not make it good?" Isaiah ^^sH* "So shall 
my word be that goeth forth: out of my mouth; it shall 
not return unto me void, but it shall accomplish that 
which I please, and it shall prosper in the thing where- 
to I sent it," And as the Apostle Paul in Eph. 1:11 
says of the Father "VJho worketh all things after the 
counsel of his own will." 

In all this however v^e must remember that the Lord . 
said to i^he posterity of Abraham, Lev. 26, "But if ye 
will not hearken unto me, and will not do all these 
commandments; and if ye shall despise my statutes, or 
if your soul abhor my judgments, so that ye will not 
do all my commandments, but that ye break my covenant 
. . ♦ I will scatter you among the heathen, and will 
draw out a sword after you: and youi" land shall be 
desolate, and your cities waste," 

In Nehemiah 1:8-9 we read, "If ye transgress, I will 
scatter you abroad among the nations: But if ye turn 
unto me, and keep my commandments, and do themj though 
there were of you cast out unto the uttermost part of 
the heaven yet will I gather them from thense, an^ will 
bring than unto the place that I have chosen to set my 
name there," 

Jeremiah 32, "Behold I will gather them out of all 
countries, "whither I have driven them in mine anger, 
and in my fury, and in great wrath; and I will bring 
them again unto this place, and I will cause them to 
dwell safely: and they shall be my people, and I will 
be their God: and I will give them one heart, and one 
way,, that they may fear me forever, for the good of 
them, and of their ciiildren after them: and i will 
make an everlasting covenant with them, that I will not 
t\irn away from them, to do them good; but I vjill p ut 
my fear in their hearts, that they shall not depart 
from me« . . For thus saith the Lord; like as I have 
brought an this great evil upon this people, so will 
I bring upon them all the good that I have promised them. 


■ Ch. 33 • "Behold the days come^ saith the Lord^that 
I will perrorm that pood thing which I have promised 
unto the house of Israel, ani to the house of Judah. 
In i±Lose days and at that time will I cause the BRANCH 
of righteousness to grow up unto David, and he shall 
execute judgment and righteousness in the ls.nd, in 
those days shall Judah be saved, and Jerusalem shall 
dwell safely: and this is the name wherewith she shall 
be called- - "The Lord our righteousness"- - Isaiati 66, 
"Who hath heard such a thing, who hath seen such things? 
Shall the earth be made to bring forth in one day? or 
shall a nation be born at once? for as soon as Zion 
travailed she brought forth her children". • . "Rejoice 
ye with Jerusalem, and be glad with her, al.l ye that 
love her, rejoice for joy with her all ye that moui^n 
for her . " 

In Romans 9^ "^j"^ see the compassionate heart of the 
apostle Paul for his kindred in the flesh, where he 
says, "I have great heaviness and continual sorrow in 
my heart, for I could wish that myself were accursed 
from Christ for my brethren, my kinsmen accoraing to 
the flesh: who are Israelites^ to whom pertaineth the 
adoption, and the glory, and the covenajits, and the 
giving of the law, and the service of God and tne pro- 

Mien all these prophesies have become fulfilled, 
then vjill tiie message of the Angel Gabriel to the 
mother of Jesus come into its fullness where he said 
SHALL BE NO END." Jesus reigning forever over the house 
of Jacob, and the saints forever reigning with Him. As 
in Rev. 3^21, "To him that overcometh vjill I grant to 
sit with me in my throne, even as-^ I also overcame, and 
am set down with my Father in his throne." 

— Rossville, Indiana 

THE PILGRjyi - 131 


I wotad like to nominate Luke 10:25-37— the story of 
the Good Samaritan— as the most misused Biblical text. 
There are many ways in which this passage is misused. . 
But -^at concerns us is that the interpretation of the 
story most frequently heard from Chj-istian: pulpits and 
publications is itself soite thing of a misuse of the pas* 

The standard interpretation sees in the story the 
teaching that every man is my neighbor. Even many schol- 
arly commentators offer this analysis (e.g. "Meighborhood 
is made coextensive with humanity, ^'O However, a careful 
study of the passage, especially of its beginning and 
'ending, raises serious question about the validity of 
this usual interpretation. 

The story begins with a question. In fact, it was, 
given as an answer to the question- "And ytxo is my neigh- 
bor?" This question arose in a discussion of what one 
must do to inherit eternal life. According to this 
passage, life is given to those who love the Lord with 
heart, soul, strength, and mind, and their neighbors as 

At this point in the discussion the religious lawyer 
Tftfoc was talking to Jesus responds witn the question, 
"And who is my neighbor?" 

This very interesting question provides the key to 
the interpretation of the story. Luke takes care to 
point out that the la>jyer asked the question "desiring 
to justify himself." This was no ordinary question. 
The lavjyer anticipated in advance that the question 
co-old not be answered. Or if it could be answered, he 
expected the answer to be so general or inconclusive as 
to leave him "justified." The fact that he was well 
trained in the jewi^ schools adds to the significance 
of the question. 

"VJho is my neighbor?" This is a question which tends 
to agree with the command to love one's neighbor in 
theory, but in actual fact it seeks to render the command 
ineffective and harmless by an appeal to the corrrplex 


human situation. It is a question lAhich seeks to keep 
God's command in the realm of pious generalities by 
raising the problem of how such a simple command can 
apply with certainty to the complicated realities of 
everyday life. By appealing to the ambiguities of his 
owi life situation, the lawyer hoped to rob the command 
of its cutting power. 

The lawyer's question has a familiar ring. In fact, 
it is especially interesting because the problem of 
applying Biblical commands to a complicated society is 
so often presented as a modern one, something peculiar 
to our time. VJe frequently hear that in Jesus' tme 
the Biblical 'coromands v^-ald have made sense, but now in 
our complicated society they cannot have direct rele- 
vance. How can the Biblicai commands be applied in our 
society today with all its complexity, its institutions, 
organizations, secondary or '^distant** relation^ships, 
its enlightened self-interest and its aanbiguous social 
situations? In the light of the arg^oments so much in 
use today, it is interesting to see that exactly the 
same question w^as being raised during Jesus' rrdnistry, 
and that in raising the question the lawyer hoped to 
give lip service to the command without allowing it to 
be a medvUesome reality in his everyday life. 

As such, tlie lawyer's question' certainly does con- 
stitute a basic challenge to the whole concept of obed- 
ience before God* For if we cajinot know vdth certainty 
yho our neighbor is, if the commands do not after all 
apply to our situation, or if the manner of their ap- 
plication is merely a matter of personal, debatable 
opinion, then the slothful servant does stand justified. 
Wlien the import of this question is clearly seen, it 
should be evident how inadequate is the usual interpre- 
tation of the stoTj. If neighborhood is coextensive 
vjith huiuanity, then that does leave the yiole thing up 
in the air. VJhat the command means concretely for his 
life would still be an ananswered question. And that 
was just what the lawyer wanted. 

Jesus' answer to this challenge moves in two stages. 
First He tells the story and asks— "Wliich of these three, 
do ^"ou think, proved neighbor to the man who fell among 


robbers?" This involves looking at the matter from the 
viei/gpoint of the man v*io was lying by the roadside. It 
involves a change in perspective^ for the man by the 
roadside was not the one who loved a neighbor; rather he 
was the object of love. He was on the receiving end^ ; 
not the giving end. 

The purpose of this que'stion is to select the Samari- 
tan, rather than the priest and Levite, as the one who 
proved to be a true neighbor." The Sajnaritan was the 
least likely candidate of the three. His race and his 
religion Dvould ordinar-ily define him out of the competi- 
tion.' It was taken for granted that a Samaritan wafs not 
a neighbor. So there is a note of irony in the fact that 
by his action this Samaritan proved to be a neighbor to 
the man by the roadside^ when the priest a-i d the Levite 
did not. As far as the original problem is concerned 
(Vflid is my neighbor?)^ this serves a negative function. 
It indicates that the old distinctions no longer apply. 
It diows that race and class and religion can no longer 
exclude anyone from the possibility of being a true neigh- 

host interpreters of the story stop here. And they 
naturally conclude that since the old" distinctions do^ ' 
not excluae anyone, 'that everyone is my neighbor. Neigh- 
borhood is made coextensive with himianity. /md then if 
they think about the matter c;arsfully, they often decide 
that Jesus didn»t answer the man's question after all. 
Rather He shifted the perspective and discussed it from 
the vieifpoint of one who received love, rather than from 
the stardpoint of one who is to show love. 

However, this interpretation overlooks the ■ a!nd 
very irrportant statement, '*Go and do likewise." This 
statement provides the second stage of Jesus' answer and 
it is by means of this statement that He returns to the 
perspective of the original question. For in the light 
of this command one must ask, ^*Go and do x*at?" The an- 
swer is, ^'Do what the Samaritan did?'» Then one m.ust ask, 
"Wiat did he do? And to Miom?'' And this brings us 
back to the question of def?Lning the neighbor for one who 
is to diow love. 

VJhen we analyze who the Samaritan *s neighbor was, we 


discover some striking things* Let me mention only two* 
Firsts the Samaritan's neighbor was "half -dead." This 
has often been noted before, A neighbor is someone -viho 
is in need. The Samaritan doubtless met many travelers 
on the road to Jericho that day* Mere they all his 
neighbors? Potentially, yes. But actually, no I It 
was only this one desperately needy man that he actually 
stopped and ministered to. Just this -one who was his 
neighbor ♦ 

Secondly, we might ask then, is every needy man oxir 
neighbor? Again vre must answer, potentially, yes. But 
actually, no. The Samaritan ministered to only one 
needy man, the one he found by the roadside, 

."When you stop to reflect on the significance of this, 
'it is surprising. The Samaritan's .neighbor was not 
someone who lived next door to him back in Samaria. 
The neighbor was not found among the scores of needy in 
either Jerusalem (where he may have spent the night) 
or Jericho (his present destination). 

The Sainaritan's neighbor was tiiis poor fellow by 'the 
roadside. He had never seen him before. There were no 
natural claims to loyalty or devotion. The two were 
simply thrown together in the stream of history. This 
is made especially clear in the text, for it says that 
*he was on a journey. ■ 

, l€io is the neighbor? He is this one HEilE by the 
roadside, the one in -those presence the sud- 
denly found himself as he came around a bend in the 
road. The neighbor is someone HElffl, NO/i/j someone we 
have access to, someone we are. close to, with whom we 
find ourselves. 

Probably it is the failiur^e to recognize this fact 
Tflfcich is the main reason #iy Christians Ixave- so often 
been iciox%fn to "pass by" on the other side* We are \inder 
the constant temptation to overlook the people lying 
at our feet in favor of those "anticipated neighbors" 
•whom we hope to meet in Jericho, or those "past neigh- 
bors" who were left behind in Jerusalem or Samaria, 
But these are not the true neighbors. The one whom we 
are to love as ourselves is this needy one at oxu:* side, 
"Soever he may be. He has a claim on all our resources. 


our^time^ and our coinpassicn. 

This is a darjjig answer. And in this particular 
passage Jesus does not elaborate the undergirding assum- 
ptions ^iich mal^e such an answer possible. However, 
since x-jhat He says here is consistent with the Biblical 
answer in general, v/e might lift out two fundamental 
ct) nsiderations from the Scriptural witness in general, 
which help to ei^plain this answer. 

Fir'st there is the fact of miracle, God's grace is 
a reality. The resources for life are God^s and not 
ours. It is He Trjhc supplies them according to His ■ 
grace. This is vividly illustrated in the story of the 
Old Testament wi.dow who ahar'ed her last handfii of meal 
and her last few drops of oil with an unexpected -neigh- 
bor— the prophet. She used all the meal to feed this 
neighbor, but more was there vti en she went to the barrel 
the ne:-.t time because of God's gracious and miraculous 

Such is God^s will and promise also to us in the ■ 
New Testament era. It is often the "very last handful 
of meal that is required if we are to serve the neigh-- 
bors v±iom we chance to find along life's way. But that 
does^ not mean there will be no meal in the bcirrel the 
next time -we turn to it. The' reso-urces are God^s, and 
the measure of their distribution is ace carding to grace 
and miracle. Those wlio overlook this are constrained 
to pass by on the other side because they m.ust conserve 
their resoircces. Already 'there are obligations and 
claims enough to extiaust all oui^ resources. How :can. 
there be any to spare for this poor fellow? 

However, the Bible affxt-^ms tliat God supplies out^ 
resoirces. This is why we might dare to give freely of 
our mxe.^ns to care for this neighbor. This is ihy we 
might dare to jeopai-dize oar futui^e usefulness and the 
responsible fulfillment of all those commitments, just 
for the sake of this one unexpected interruption. 

The second fact i/diich malces possible the Biblical 
answer is the fact of eschatology. Christian faith 
affirms that we are living in the last times. The New 
Testament tells us the end will come soon, and no one 
knows lAen, All we can be sure about is the One who is 

.136 ^- • • THE PILGRM 

Lord of the future, • - 

The end is coining soon, but we do not know when. 
This can be said of the ^lole world. It can also be 
said, about each of us as individuals. And it is for 
•this reason that the neighbor now lying at our feet may- 
be 'the last one we shall ever meet along life's way. 
This may be our last opportunity to serve a neighbor. 
It may be the final proving of our faith, the crticial 
test. We may never get to Jericho. 

Thus, the only neighbor we are really sure about is 
this one whom we chance to be with at the present,- 
The one by the roadside, he is the real neighbor* All 
the other anticipated neighbors we maj^ never encounter, 
"We may never return to those we formerly l-cnew. Thus 
it is this one in our presence vtiom we ar*e to serve, 
"And we are to love him as we do otirselves. He has a 
claim even upon otir last handful of meal. 

There is a final observation about this story which 
is just as significaiit as any mentioned so far. The 
New Testament is often accused of being idealist in its 
Commands, And to love your neighbor as yourself is 
certainly -one of tiie most idealistic when interpreted 
from this point of view. Yet Jesus offers the stor;/ of 
thisSajraritan as the fulfillment of the commana. 
And there is no hint that this incident is any way un- 
worthy of what it means to love your neighbor as you do 
yourself, let surely there is nothing idealistic about 
the Samaritan, and wliat he did. The story is utterly 
realistic and true to life. The Samaritan's example is 
challenging and difficult, to be sure. But there is 
not a one of us as Christians who, by God's grace, 
could not do as x^rell as the Samaritan did. And this, 
I believe, reveals • something pretty basic about the 
way we need to understand and interpret the Biblical 
commands , 

May we not be found among those who in desiring to 
justify themselves, ask, "And \^o is my neighbor?" 

-Gospel Herald, 1959^ 

THE PILGIira 137 

(Conciensed from the lectOTesor C, G. Finney, .i8U8) 

' THE CONDITIONS OF THIS iTTAINl^IENT* -(Ccntinued)- " • • 

All truly Christian experiences are, like IrniEan countenances, 
in their outline so rmioh alike as to be readily knowi as the 
lineaments* of the religion of Jesus Christ* But no further than 
tijds are they aL ike, any more than hunian countenances are p,like« 

But here let it be remembered, that s anct if i cation does not 
consist in the various affections or emotions of i^ich Christians 
speak, and which are often mistaken for, cr confounded mth, true 
religion; but that s an ot if i cation consists in entire- consecration, 
and consetiuently it is all out of place for tMiy one to attempt to 
copy the feelings of another, inasmuch as feelings do not consti- 
tute true reli/;^ion, but often result from a state of heart* These 
feelings may properly enough be spoken of as Christian, experience, 
for although involuntary states of m^nd, they experienced by 
true Christians » The only vm-y to secure them is to set the mil 
ri.^ht, and the emotions vdll be a natura^l result* 

Not by TTa-iting to make preparations before jow come into this 
statG» Observe, that the t}.ii}:g about which you, are ing^uirin^^, is 
a state of entire consecration to God. No-y/ do not iT;-agine that ■' 
this state of mind raust b:; "prof pxod by a long introduction of 
preparatory exerciseBg It is coiraon for persons, TJhen inquiring 
upon thJ.s subject vdta earnestness, to thinl:: themselves hindea*ed 
in this progress by a \rant of this, or that, or I; ho other oxer^ 
cise or state of mind» They look eveix*/-iG3:e else but at the real 
difficulty* The^/ asLiign any other, and every other bub the true 
reason, for their not being already in a state of s anct if i cat ion # 
The tro.e difficulty is voluntary self ishiicss, or voluntary con- 
secration to self-interest and self-gratification* This is the 
difficulty, and the only difficulty, to be overcome* 

Not by attending meetings, asking the prayers of other Christ; 
tians, or depending in any ymy upon the means of getting into this 
state* By this I do not intend to say, that means arc imneces— . 
sary, or that it is not through the instrumentality of truth, 
that this state of ifdnd is induced* But I do m.ean, that vAiile 
you are depending upon any instrum.entality whatever, your mind 
is diverted from the real point before you, and you are never 
likely to rxke this attainment* 

Not by %vaiting for any particular vieTrs of Christ* Yi?hen pei>- 
sons in the state of ' mind of Yjhioh I have been speaking, hear 
those who live in faith describe their views of Chilst, they say. 
Oh, if I had such viev^s, I coxild believe; I must have these be-' . 
fore I can believe* Won you should understand, that these views 
are the result and effect of faith in the promse of the Spirit, 
to take of the tilings of Christ and show them to you* Lay hold 


of this-* class of promises, and the Holy Spirit mil reveal 
Christ to you, in t|ie relations in which you need him from time 
to time* Take hold, then, on the simple promise of God« Take 
God at his word. Believe that he means just Tf^at he says; and 
this vdll at once bring you into the state of mind after which 
you inquire. 

. Not in any v/ay which you may mark out for yourself. Persons 
in an inquiring state are Tery apt, without seeming to be aware 
of it, to send imagination on before them, to stalce out the "way, 
and set up a flag where they intend to come out. They expect 
to be thus and thus exercised — to have such and such peculiar 
vie^Ts and feelings when they have attained their object. I'Tow, 
there probably never Tra.s a person who did not find himself dis- 
appointed in these respects* God says, "I will bring the blind 
.by a way that they know not. I mil lead them in paths that 
they have not known: I will make darkness light before them, 
and crooked things straight. These things 7all I do unto them, 
and not forsake them." This suffering your imagination to mark 
out your path is a great hindrance to you, as it sets you upon 
making many fruitless, and v/orse than fruitless attempts to 
attain this imaginary state of mind, wastes much of your time, 
and greatly wearies the patience and grieves the Spirit of God* 
^Jblle he is trying to lead you right to the point, you are hauli) 
ing off from the course, and insisting, that' this which your 
imagination has marked out is the way, instead of that in which 
he is trjdng to lead you. Ind thus in your pride and ignorance 
you are causing much delay, and abusing the long-suffering of 
God. He says, "This is the way, ^mlk ye in it." But you say, 
no— this is the way. ind thus you stand and parley and banter, 
while you are every moment in danger of grieving the Spirit of 
God away from you, and of losing your soul« • 

If there is anything in you-r imagination that has fixed de- 
finitely upon any particular manner, time, or place, or circuEO- 
stance, you vail, in all probability, either be deceived ^y the 
devil, ^ or be entirely disappointed in the result. You mil 
find, in all these partioialar items on which you had laid any 
stress, that the msdom of imn is foolishness with God— that 
your ways are not his vra.ys, nor your thoughts his thoughts. 

For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are his ways 
higher than your ways and his thoughts higher than your thoughts." 

This state is to be attained by faith alone. Let it be for 
ever remembered, that "mthout faith it is inrpossible to please 
God, and "whatsoever is not of faith, is sin." Both jixstifi-. 
cation and sanctification are by faith alone. Rom. 111:30: , 

Seeing it is one God who shall justify the circ*amcision by 
faith, and the uncircumcision through faith;" and ch. 5:1: 

'Therefore, being justified by faith, vre have peace with God, 
through our Lord Jesus Christ." Also, Ch. 9:30,31i "lOiat shall 
we say then? That the Gentiles, T/gho followed not after righteous- 


ness, have attained to righteousness, even tiie righteousness which 
is of faith. But Israel, 7/ho followed after the law of righteous^ 
ness, hath not attained to the law of righteousness* Mierefore? 
Because they sought it not by faith^ but, as it were, by the works 
of the law*" 

But let me by no means be understood as teaching sanctifi cation 
by faith, as distinct from and opposed to sanctifi cat ion by the 
Holy Spirit, or Spirit of Christ, or which is the same tiling, by 
Christ our sanctif ication, living and reigning in the heart # 
Faith is rathei^ the instriHaent or condition, than the efficient 
agent that induces a state of present and permanent sanctif ication* 
This he does by Uivine discoveries to the soul of his 
perfections and fulness* The condition of these discoveries is 
faith and obedience. He says, John 14:21-23: "He that hath my 
coiamndments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me; and he 
that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I Tall love him, 
and will manifest myself to him* Judas saith unto him, (not 
Iscariot,) Lord, how is 3.t that thou mlt m.anifest thyself unto 
us, and not unto the world? Jesus answered and said unto him, 
If a man love me, he mil keep my words s and my Father vail love 
him, and we mil com.e \Hato him, aa d m.ake oior abode with him*" 

To ascertain the conditions of entire sanctif ication in this 
life, we must consider vdiat the temptations are that overcome us* 
Vfcen first converted, vre have seen, that 'the heart or vdll con- 
secrates itself and the TJiiole being to God, We have also seen, 
that this is a state of disinterested benevolence, or a comrrattal 
of the ■.'^lole being to the promotion of the highest good* We have 
also seen, that all -sin is self is ba ess,, or that all sin consists 
in the will's seeking trie indulgence or gratification of self; 
that it consists in the T/ill's yielding obedience to the -propen- 
sities^,^ instead of obeying God, as his law is revealed in the rea- 
son* i-Iow, who cannot see wJiat needs to be done to break 'the 
power of temptation,, and let the soul go free? ■ The fact is, that 
the department of our sensibility that is related to objects of 
time and sense, has received an enoi^oxis development, and is trem- 
blingly alive to all its correlabed objects, while, bv reason of 
the blindness of the mind to spiritual objects, it is'-scarcely 
developed at all in its relations to them. Those objects are 
seldom thought of by the carnal mind, and 7/nen thev are, they 
are only thought of* They are not clearly seen, and of course 
they are not- felt* 

The_ thought of God, of Christ, of sin, of holiness, of heaven, 
and hell, excites little or no emotion in the carnal mind, "The 
carnal mind is alive and av/ake to earthly and sensible objects, 
but dead to spiritual realities. The spiritual world needs to be 
revealed to the soul. The soul, needs to see and clearly appre- 
hend its o-wn spiritual condition, relations, vjants. It needs 
to become acquainted 7dth God and Glirist, to have spiritual and 
eternal realities made plain, and present, and all-absorbing reali- 
ties to the soul. It needs such discoveries of the eternal world, 
(continued ©n page 142) 




Certain -writers have industriously exerted themselves 
to display the mild and tolerant natiare of the religion 
which prevailed in the Roman -world at the introduction 
of Christianity; and then^ when its seeming claims to 
this excellence have been established, they have placed 
it in contrast with the persecuting spirit which has 
occasionally broken out from the corruptions of our 
faith) insomuch that some persons may possibly have 
been persuaded that there were some latent virtue in 
thdt superstition, which Christianity does not possess, 
¥e shall not here pause to show, what none can seriously 
deny, that the intolerance of Christians, like all their 
other vices^ is in spite, and not in consequence, of 
their belief. 

Ciqero gives us the fcllovjing extract from the most 
ancient' laws of Rome, *Let no one have any sepai^ate 
J worship, nor hold any new godsj neither to strange gods, 
unless they have been publicly adopted, lest any private 
worship be offered men should attend the temples erect- 
ed by their ancestor s',&c. From Livy we learn that 
about U30 yeai-'S before Christ, orders were given to the 
AEdiles to see that none except Roman gods were worship- 
ped, nor in any other than the established forms. ^ Some- 
what jnore than 20D years after this edict, to crush 
certain external rites which were becoming common in 
the city, the follomng edict was published, ' that 
whoever possesses books of oracle, or prayer, or any 
written act of sacrifice, deliver all such books and 
writing to the Fretor before the Calends of April; and 
that no one sacrifice on public or sacred ground after 
nev^r or foreign rites. | But it may seem needless to 
produce sepai^ate instances, vjhen from the same historian 
we learn, that it had been customary in all the early 
ages of the republic to empower the magistrates 'to pre- 
vent all foreign worship, to expel its ministers from 
the forum, the circus, and the city, to search for and 
burn the religious books and to abolish every form of 

THE PILGRD4- li^l 

sacrifice except the national and established form, ^ 

The authority of Livy is confirmed by that of Valerius 
Maximus, who wrote under the emperor Tiberius ^ and bear*s 
testimony to the jealousy with ■&i>ieh all foreign reli- 
gions were prohibited by the Roman republic. That the 
same principle, Dtiich had been consecrated by the prac- 
tice of seven hundred ?/^earSj, was not discontinued by the 
emperors 5 is clearly attested by the historian Dio Cassi- 
us. It appeal's thatheeaenas, in the most earnest terms, 
e>diorted Augustus- *to ha.te and piinish » all foreign re- 
ligions, and to compel all /men to. conform to the nation- 
al worships and we are assured that the scherae of govern- 
ment thus proposed was pursi:ied by Augustus aiid adopted 
by his successoi's. 

*Now, from the f jjrst of the passages before us it 
appears' that all riglit of private judgment in rratters 

ox religion Was expliclty forbidden b^- an original law 
of Home— which noYer was repealed. Me know not wha,t 
stronger proof it vjould be possible to adduce of the .in- 
herent intolerance of ixoman Polytheism, The.f.o.ur next 
references prove to us that the a^:Cient law, subversive 
of the most obvious right of himicn iiature, was strictly 
acted upon dLiring the long conti.nuance of the coromon- 
we.alth. The establis]ied form of Paganism mAght not be 
violated by individual schism or dissent; the gods whom 
the government created the people were compelled to wor- 
ship according to the forms imposed by the government. 
Under the earlj? emperors the same was still the maxim 
of state] and if the influx of idolaters from every 
nation under Heaven made it difficult to preserve, the 
purity of bhe Homan religion, that religion became more 
domestic and (let us add) more Roman by the successive 
and easy deification of some of the most vicious of man- 
kind, ' ■ _ 

These few lines may suffice for the present to dis- 
prove the plausible theory of the tolerance of Paganism, 
and they may lead us, perhaps, to discover the true 
reason why the worship of Glirist was forbidden in that 
city lAliich acknowledged the divinity of Nero. At least, 
we shall have learnt from them, that the religion which 


Christianity supplanted was very far from possessing 
the only point of superiority which its admirers have 
ever claimed for it. And we shall not forget^ in the 
following, pages 5 to direct to the religious system of 
Rome some portion of the abhorrence -vhich is usually 
confined to the individuals who administered it, 

— Waddington * s History of the Church* 

(SiNGTIFICimON* Contimed from page 139 ) 

of the nature and guilt of sin, and of Christ, the remedy of the 
soul, as: to kill or greatly mortify lust, or the appetites and 
passions in their relations to objects of time and sense, and 
thoroughly to develop the sensibility, in its relations to sin 
and to God, and to the tihole circle of spiritual realities* 
This mil greatly abate the frequency and pov;Br of temptation 
to self— gratification, and break up the voluntary slavery of the 
mll« The developments of the sensibility need to be thorougiily 
corrected* This can only be done by the revelation to the in- 
ward man, by the Holy Spirit, of those great, and solemn, and 
overpowering realities of the "spirit land," that lie concealed 
from the eye of flesh* (Continued-^ two more instalments) 

It is a cheap slot-inachine religion that is used 
as a means to an end rather than an end in itself. 
Would you like to have peace of mnd? Try religion. 
Would you like to get along better with members of 
your family, with those with whom you work at the 
office? Religion might help, V/ould you like to 
have a healthier body, a healthier mind? Try Religion, 
Don't misunderstand me. Religion does give peace of 
mind J it does mean healthy minds and healthy bodies. 
But religion is not a means to anything other than 
the presence of God. We should seek God, not for 
what we can get out of him, but for what he can get 
into us. We should love our earthly fathers, not to 
increase our allowance or inheritance, but because of 
owe appreciation and respect for them and because they 
are lovable. We should love God because of our love 
for the things God loves. \Je should seek God to be 
used of God rather than seek to use God. 

— Selected 


IvlAJRK 10:47 

Miat means this eager, axixious throng 
That moTes with busy haste a long— 
These wondrous gatherings day by day? 
What, means this strange convention, pray? 
In accents htished the throng reply: 
"Jesus of Nasareth passeth by," 

Vaio is this Jesus? -Ylhy should he' . " ■ 

The city more so ndghtily? 

A passing stranger has the skill 

To raove the irraltitude at will? . ^.-. 

Again the stirring notes reply,. ''"''" ".•• ' 

"Jesus of Nasareth passeth by," • ' ' ■" 

Jesus I His He 7jhQ once below •? 

Man's pathY/ay trod, »niid pain aid woe; 
And burdened ones, Tmere'er He came. 
Brought out their sick, and deaf, and lame* 
The blind rejoiced to hear the cry 
"Jesus of Nasareth passeth by," . -V 

Again He comes ♦ From place to place 

His holy footprints we can trace, ■ .' ' 

He pauseth at ou.r threshhold— nay, 

He ent er s— c ond esc end s to s t ay. 

Shall vj-e not gladly raise the cry— ' ' 

"Jesus of Nasareth passeth hy^^^ ■ . •• • 

Hoi all ye hea'V7/- laden cornel 
Here's pardon, comfort, rest, and home* 
Ye wanderers from a Father's face, 
Retimi, accept His proffered grace 
Ye tempted ones, there's refuge nigh: 
"Jesus of Nazareth passeth by," 

But if you still this call refuse, ■•■ • 
And all His v.Dndrous Ioyo abuse,' 
Soon vail He sadly from you ti^rn. 
Your bitter prayer for pardon spurn*. 
Too late» Too late." Will be the cry— 
"Jesus of Ilasareth passeth by." 

. — Selected 



Information, as to the authorship of the Epistle to 
the Hebrews, is wanting. Also the time and place of its 
Composition are both "uncertain. Its form is somex-^hat 
different from the thirteen epistles preceeding it. 
It was evidently -written before the destruction of 
Jerusalem^ 70 A .D^ It seeias to be addressed to the 
Jews in Jerusalem, or perhaps to Jewish believers every- 
where » 

The numerous Christian churches scattered through- 
Judaea were continually exposed to persecution from the 
Jews, but in Jerusalem there was one additional weapon 
in the hands of the predominant oppre^^or of the Christ- 
ians, The magnificent national Temple might be shut 
against the Hebrew Ciiiristianj and even if this afflic- 
tion were not often laid, upon him, yet there was a 
secret burden which he bore within him, the knowledge 
that the end of all the beauty and awf ulness of Zion 
was rapidly approaching » "What could talkie tlae place of 
the Temple, and that which was behind the veil, the 
Levitical sacrifices^ and the Holy City, when they 
should cease to exist? What compensation could Christ- 
ianity offer him for the loss which was pressing the 
Hebrev; Christian more and more? 

The writer of this episle meets the Hebrew Christian 
on his own ground, and it is extremely pertinant to 
modern day Christians, "Your new faith gives you Christ, 
In Christ the Son of God you have an all sufficient 
Mediator, nearer than the angels to the Father, eminent 
above Moses is a benefactor, more sympathising and more 
pi^evaillng than the High Priest as an intercessor j His 
Sabbath awaits you in heaven j to His covenant the old 
was intend-ed to be subservient. His atonement is the 
eternal reality, of which sacrifices were but the pass- 
ing shadow; His city heavenly. Believe in Him with all 
your heart, with a faith as strong as that of the saints 
of old, patient and full of hope holiness and love. 
Such is the teaching of the Epistle to the Hebrews, 

— R.D, Skiles, Modesto, Calif, 


VOL> 7 AUGUST. 1960 MO, S 

.*Deqrl/ beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain 
from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul." 1 Peter 2: 1 1 


We Christians- may doubt that the gospel is true '; 

Because it is hard to believe. 
Some words Jesus ' said have caused some to say:.; 

»*This ^' saying viho can receive?" 
There are many ^^fho stumble and wander away 

Oh account of some things they don*t knovj. 
But Christian ^believers don't go away, - : ■ 
'• For where in the world shall we go? 

Shall wo go to the teachers who don't Imow the truth 

About God and creation and light? 
Lf the truth" is with God and the prophets of God^ 

Then the godless ca:inot be right. 
Shall we go back to Hoses and prophets of God 

Vilao' enlightened the ^ tiff -necked Jews? 
But Jesus is bette^r. His way is better. , ; ' 

His teaching is truly good news. 

»'It is you" who have word of eternal life," . . 
'Said Peter to Jesus that day. ,. , . 

"Andydu are the holy one sent by the Lord." 

So wh^ sho'old we go away? ' .... 

Is the teaching from heaven? Then Jesus is true. . 

Cm' doubts vd.ll be answered His way. 
Wr/ can't we trust Jesus? And whom can we trust? 

Be honest. >Jhat shall we say? 

' - ' " • . . —Selected 

THE PlLGRiM is a reiigious magazine published monthly by Daniel F. Wolf in the 
interests of the members of The Old Brethren Church. Subscription rate: $1.50 per year. 
Sample copies sent free on request. Address: THE PILGRIM, Rt. 3, Box 1378, Modesto, Calif. 


(Editor *s Note t-^ This is the second of several arti- 
cles^ by the editor on the subject of Annual Meeting in 
the Dunker Church, and will consist of extracts from 
authentic histories on the origin and development of 
coimcils in the primitive churchy) 


In the ecclesiastical sense, "Councils'* or ''synoda" 
are assemblies of representives of the Church for the 
discussion and decisions of questions of faith, points 
of discipline, and morals. The gathering of the apos- 
tles mentioned in Acts Ip^ may be passed over as having 
no connection with the later development. The earliest 
synods deserving of mention are those held in Asia Minor 
in reference to the Montanist question and those in 
which both east and west attempted to settle the 
quatodeciman controversy* 

A full understanding of the origin cannot be obtained 
without remembering the constant intercourse by means 
of accredited representatives which the primitve 
Christian communities maintained. If a local church 
was distracted by discord, the neighboring churches 
felt bound to assist in the restoration of order ;i when 
peace was restored after a storm of persecution, even 
distant churches sent envoys to express their joy; if 
a bishop was to be chosen in a sm.all church, the dele- 
gates of. the larger comraunities round about assisted 
in the deliberations. Such envoys, who might be bishops 
or lower, clergy, were chosen in a local gathering of a 
local church. • ■ ' 

It is then on the s'lirface scarcely a -step further 
to the assembly of representatives of a number of 
churches for the purpose of reaching a common decision 
on a disputed question. But a little reflection will 
show that it is not the same thing. Both the discussion 
of a local question with the assistance of representa- 


tives from the outside^ and the meeting to discuss a 
question which ' affected a nuraber of coMnunities alike, 
sprang from the primitive Christian feeling of unity 
and from the consequent mutual intercourse; but thy had 
different aims and significance* 

The snyods of^ the second centiury were loosly organ- 
ized?' they 'came together when a question happened to 
need decision, and" represented no determinate group of 
churchesj they had no ex-officio members, and no, author- 
ity which could interfere with local independence. By 
degrees however, the logical consequence ,of the monarch- 
ical episcopate and the theory of apostolic 's^ccessioii 
followed. In the third centiory the bishops primarily 
consituted the sjaiods. It is true that in this period 
presbyters^ still miiversally took part with the bishops, 
as evidence in Alexendria in the first synod held by 
Demetrius against Origan; in -6.ntiohj in Cappadocia; in 
Rome; and in Africa. But none the less the center of 
gravity had shifted. Though Cyprian mentions the pres- 
ence of presbyl^ers and deacons, it is evident from more 
than one passage that In his mnd it w^as the bishops . 
who decided the questions. The records of the sjniod o£ 
Sept., 23'6, notes the presence of .many bishops fx'OBi 
three provinces, with presbyters and deacons and the 
greater part of the Idityjbixt in the decision the votes 
of the bi^acps alone exe given. Thus, too,, the African 
snyodal epistles are subscribed by the bis!:] ops only. 
The presence of the lower clergy and the laity contri- 
buted to the publicity of the proceedings, not to the 
decision, which was now in the hands of the episcopate. 
< The development TftSiich was complete by tlie middle of 
the- seoond century in Mrica vjas sauewhat slower else- 
where. At Rome in 2^0 the consensus of the clergy and 
laity was still considerea essential to a synodal de- 
cision and a sirailar state of things is found in Cappa- 
docia. But the same tendency was everi^Aere in evidence. 
It is not therefore surprising that in the first council 
of Nicaea and in that of Antioch (3i]l) it should be- ■ 
taken for granted that only the bishops were the active 
members, "in harmony with this development was the gen-^ 
eral conception of synodal authority. The bisliops, as 


successors of the apostl^s^ were officially endued 
with the Holy Spirit; they made their decisions '^under 
the inspiration of the Holy Ghost" or '*in the presence 
of the Holy Ghost and his angels"; "the decision of a 
synod is equivalent to a divine sentence »'' 

The next step was tb make synods ordinary institu^ 
tions of the church. Extraordinary ones continued to 
be held^ but they were additonal to the regvilar ones, 
^ich az'e assumed in the first mention of Eastern 
sjTiods by a western writer_, probably between 210 and 
220,' Annual meetings soon became the rule, as can be 
evidenced in Cappadocia as early as the middle of the 
third century. This regiLlar recxrrrence lead to the 
restriction of the district represented, and,' probably 
on the anology of secular assemblies, the bishops of 
each province met in its capitol. 

The institution became legaly established by the 
first council of Nicaea, which provided for two meetings 
in the year, one befo^re lent, the ^other in the autumn. 
At Antioch in 3Ul the dates were defined as four weeks 
before Pentecost Oct, 13', ard the arrangement continued 
long in force. Finally the Trullan Council of 692 and 
the second Nicene of 78? contented themselves with the 
requiring a single annual session. The provincial 
syriod became the most iraportant organ of the eqisopal 
government of the church. The metropolitcin called it 
and presided over it. Its competence was practicaly 
loniimited, estending over all questions of faith and 
morals, public worship, and the discipline and organi- 
zation of the church. The development of provincial 
syQods accompanied that of metropolitan jux'isdiction. 
After the organization of the patriarchal system in the 
East, the idea came up of having special synods for 
these larger divisions, and attempts were made to carry 
it cut; but they did not lead to regular annual meetings 
or to the permanence of the institution, 

FROM MOSHEIM , . / •• • ^ • ' 

During the great part of the second century, the 
christian churches were independent with respect to 
each other; nor were they joined by association, con- 


federacy_, or any other bonds than those of charity, --■ 
Each chistian asseinbly was a little state^ governed by 
its own laws J which were - either enacted, or at least 
approved by the society. But in process of timej all 
the Christian churches of a province were formed into 
one large ecclesiastical body, which, like confederate 
states, assembled at certain times in order to deliber- 
ate about tlie common interests of the whole. This in- 
stitution had its origin among the Greeks, v/ith whom 
nothing was more common than" this confederacy of inde- 
pendent states, and the regular assemblies which met, 
in consequence thereof, at fixed times, and were .com^ 
posed of deputies of each respective state. But thfese; 
ecclesiastical associations were not long confined to'' 
the Greeks; their great utility was no sooner perceived, 
than they became universal, and were formed in a].l places 
where the gospel nad been planted; To 'these assemblies, 
in which the or commissioners of several chur« . .. 
ches coxisulted toge'bher, the names" of SYNODS ;was appro- 
priated by the Greeks, and that of CBUMGIiS by 'the Latins; 
and the laws that were -enacted by these general meetings, 
■were called CANONS, i.e. RULES. - ' - ' 

These COJNGILo of which we find not the smallest/ 
trace before the middle'of this' (second) century, changed 
the Hhcle face of the ch'ureh , and gave it new form; for 
by them the ancient privileges of the people were con- 
siderably dcminished, ard the poi-^^er and authority of 
the bishops greatly augmented. The huirality, indeed 
and prudence of these pioUi:i prelates, prevented their .. 
assuming all at once the power with which thoy were 
ai'terward invested. At their first appearance in the. - 
general councils^ they acknowledged that they were no ■ 
more than the delegates of their respective chuxxlies,- 
and that they acted' in the name, and by the appointment 
of their people. But they soon changed their humble 
tone, imperceptably extended the limts of their auth- 
ority, turned their influence' into dominion, and their 
councils into laws; and openly asserted, ,at length, that 
Christ had eirpowered them to. prescribe to his. people 
AUTHORITIVE RUIE-S of FAITH and MN^ffiRS. --Another effect 
of these councils was, the gradual .abolition of that 


perfect equality which reigned among all bishops in the 
primitive times* For the order and deCsfency of these 
assemblies required, that some of the provincial bishops 
meeting in council, should be invested with a superior 
degree of power the meantime the bounds of the church 
were enlarged^ the custom of holding councils was 
followed wherever the sound of the gospel had reached; 
and the universal church had now the appearance of one 
vast republic J foimed by a combination of a great ntimber 
of little states. 

This occasioned the creation of a new order of eccle- 
siastics, who were appointed in different parts of the 
world, as heads of the church, and whose office it was 
to preserve the consistence and iinion of that immence 
body, whose members were so widely dispersed tlu^ough- 
out the nations. Such were the nature of the office 
of the PATRIMCHS, among wlaom at length, airfoition, 
having reached its most insolent period, formed a new 
dignity, investing the bishop of Rome, and his success- 
ors with the title and authority of prince of the 

J, I. Cover 

Eternal judgment, the final sentence, and reward to 
man is revealed to us in God's ¥.q1j Word. It is the 
most glorious and happy experience our Heavely Father 
has devised 'for those who accept the offered term.s of 
salvation. Also to those that refuse to accept the 
way to life, will come to e:xperience the loss of the soul 
which cannot be discribed in its horror and loss. 

Beginning upon this suject, the present article will 
"consider PRESENT JUDGMENT, We read, "For if we judge 
ourselves we shall not be judged* But when we are 
judged we are chastened of the Lord, that we should not 
be condemned with the world,'* Some mens sins are open 
■beforehand, going before unto judgment; and some they 
follow after, %et us not. therefore judge one another 

THE- PILGRM- . , .151 

anymore-: but judge this rather^ that bo man put a stum- 
bling-block or an occasion to fall In his brothers way." 
These words of God are spoken to Chris tians; who have ■ 
begun to walk with God by "repentance from dead works'^ " 
which is 'the very beginning of present or self judgment. 
"Father^ I have sinned against heaven^ and in thy si^t" 
we have cried; we cannot say this without conviction, 
and self judgment, so the beginning of Eternal Judgment 
is laid in the very f oundaiion of tlie Christians life 
and is a very aid to selt' denial . . 

God has pronounced death""' upon all ^because of sin. 
This we must accept, as a righteous act of God. We have 
forfitted the>ight to riile ourselves— now we are ser- 
vants, as we read: "Know ye not that to whom ye yj.eld 
your-selves servants to obey; his servants ye are to 
whom ye obey; whether of sin unto death; whether of sin 
unto death, or of obedience unto rightoousness." 

So from these considerations we realise it is a divine 
act of mercy and grace .that Crod has given unto us to 
judge our'selves., This' self judgment we can use when- 
ever we are conscious of sinning— straying away froFi 
the nai-^row W3.y,, ^or failing to consider kindly and loving- 
ly oui"' Christian brother along the way. 

The mo,st upbuilding and harpy .life is x^hen we take 
full council of God to judge or choose our way accord- 
ing to God's divine s^rrangement that we select into 
our Lives the good graces and aids God frnel.y f::iv6s: 
then use them refusing the evil we judge them to be of 
harm to us along the way: happy indeed are the christians 
who so choose an,d live. To sin not, this is the ideal, 
and true way to live as we read, '*This I say then, walk 
in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the 
flesh. Soviet us j edge between good and evil. And 
should we yield to sin^ we must- judge oxirselves, and 
ask mercy and pardon of Godj and so by accepting the 
good virtues learn to completely "Abhor that viaich is 
evil, and cleave to that ^lich is good," In this manner, 
by judging ourselves we shall not be judged or condemned 
with the world. We cannot value present self judgment 
too highly! 

From Christians since Jesus was on earth till now, 


sins have been continually going before hand unto judg- 
ment. God can clear the record, and aid his children 
to fight against sin, the world and Satan, and will 
help them to judge and choose aright. 

To judge my life, while here I live. 
To keep in place and station, 
t To be in truth and right to give. 
To love my holy nation, 

P?o judge my life, to meet the foe. 

To love in rounding measure. 
To walk the way of life and go, •' 

To work for heavenly treasury. • 

To judge my life in allll say, 

To keep in true devotion, 
To speak kind words and humbly pray. 

To keep from evil notion. 

To judge my life in what I hear. 

To keep in joy of singing, 
To keep my very conscience clear, 

To day of homeward winging. 

To judge my life, God judge me now, 

To me he may chastising. 
To keep me true to holy vow, 

To have a glorious rising. 

— Sonora, California 

God has ever longed for the obedience of his people 
that he might pour out his love upon them.' "How often 
would I, , . and ye would not." 

Uncounted are the blessings we loose, the joys x-^e 
forfeit. Unmeasured is the growth and development that 
could be ours, the unselfishness to which xie could att- 
ain and finally the treasures we might lay up in heaven 
^if we could but accept in humble dedication of our lives 
the plan he has for us. —Selected 


. -. ; " THE COKVERSlON OF SAUL . ' 

There are three points in the conversion of :S^ul^ •■ 

They are as follows: ',■"■■•" 

!• ' Saul's conversion was UNEKPEGTED. . • ■"•' ■ ■ -".,t; 

'■■■II*' It was MIRACUI.OUS. •■ ' ■ yr ',:.- ; ■ 

■ Hi* It was "THOROUGH, ;. ' - '^v-' 

No event could have been less expected than -the con- 
version of Saui of Tarsus. Lightning from the clear-' '^ 
blue sky, or the breaking forth of the sun at midnight^ 
ccu3_d not have struck both Jews and Cliristians ■'- "'■' ; 
deeper aniazeraent than did the report of the ciiange pf-^ 
Saul from persecutor to protector of God's "peopiei''-;But 
this is sometiiries God's way. Often does lie send us \ • ' 
blessings and do x^onders when vje least expect them, . '' 
Day. breaks at the ^ darkest ho^ar. In the midst oi'psrcii;^, 
ing dryness the refreshing shower comes, 'The hardest' 
pain is just before the birth, A sleepless night ends' 
in a joyful morning. In this way he shoxfs us that the" 
^^excellency of the power is not of men, but of God,'^ ■ ' 

In our religious experiences we sometimes feel pray- 
er, a burden; reading and meditation a task, ' ¥e loathe' 
ourselves and -^Ender how' Jesus Can love us. Out of ,such 
frames' of feeling the Lord" sometimes suddenly lifts vi^' 
by causing' light to.brealc in iipon cui' sciils,' revealing _' 
some new truth, some fresh affection, in viiich we re- .' 
joice, Ir; addition to these instances "of une>qpecte-±' /; 
blessings," we sometimes see men 'gathered into the f old^ 
for. whose conversion we had lost all hope, - - ■' ' ■ ; 

We need not wonder that SauL^s conversion was liholly 
unexpec'ued. ' He had shown such iiostilicy to Jes^os of ■ 
Nasareth ground for hope of any change' in him 
was an^HAThere visible,' His conviction was therefore, . . 
in the eyes of Christians, ' a miracle. But it was so 
only in appearance. The light, above the 'brightness • 
of "the sun, that shoneupon him,' was- but the sarae'light 
that shone from the face of the Lord and glistened from 
his rkim.ent on the holy mo^unt when he I'jas transfigured. 
John had a somewhat similar vision 'of the Lprd -qpon the 
isle of Patmos, John was better prepared' to receive the 


vision than was Saul; but even John fell at the Lord's 
feet, as. dead. The Lord immediately laid his right'hand 
upon John, and in the tenderness of his love said: 
"Fear not," These same sweet words fell from his lips 
upon the ears of the three disciples on the holy mount. 
Biit Saul heard far different words. A voice soimded 
into his soul: "I am Jesus of Nazareth whom thou per- 
secutest."' This terrific announcement broke up the 
sealed fountain of his sinfuL heart and he cried out: 
"Lord, what wouldst thou have me to do?" He was then 
told to go into the city of Damascus, and it would 
there be told him what he had to do. 

Notice the difference. The Lord did not say to him 
as he had to many others: "Fear not*" This seemed to 
be his cherished phrase to all who loved and believed 
on him. To the women at the sepulcher, these words, 
"fear not," were addressed by the angel. To the. church, 
seen in vision by the prophetic eye of Isaiah, the 
words, "Fear not, for I have redeemed thee," are tend- 
erly spoken by the Lord. If Saul's conviction had been 
brought about by htiman agency through the preaching 
of the VJord, the adversaries of the cross might have 
said that he had been persuaded, or bribed with money 
to change his manner of life. But nothing like this 
could be said now. The men who journeyed with him 
could testify otherwise. They saw the light that 
flashed upon him; but they heard not the words spoken. 
They were not persecutors of Jesus by intention as 
Saul was. Like the soldiers who nailed the Lord to 
the cross, they knew not what they did. But Saiil Knew 
what he was doing, and the light struck conviction to 
his heart. 

Conviction is a knowledge of sin imparted by the 
Holy Spirit through the Word, The light that Saul 
saw is an expressive emblem of the light of revealed 
truth. Light signifies truth, in very many places in 
the Scriptures. Take, for examples, the following: 
"The people which sat in darlmess saw great light," 
Darloiess here does not mean natural darkness, but mental 
or spiritual darkness, which is ignorance. Again: 
"Every one that doeth evil hateth the light," This was 


Saul's state exactly. He was doing evil, and he hated 
the light to such ap itch of pa-ssion that he sought to 
take the lives of the children of light. But; if was 
God*& way then, 'and it is God's way now, to convict and : 
convert men by means of the very thing they hate, which 
is the Word of Triith, .- . ' 

Saul remained three days and nights in 'this awful 
state of conviction in which time '*he did neither eat . 
nor.' drirQc." The anguish of spirit suffere"d during theise 
days and nights no heai^t but. his o^n can ever Impw* His' 
sins were red with the blood of the saints. Doubts as ' 
to what the persecuti^d Jesus miLght require of him, >Jitir' 
a thousand unanswerable questions, harassed his iiiind. 
Conviction, or a feeling sense of sin, always preceeds ..' 
conversion. Repentance cannot take place without a ' '"' 
knowledge of sins condemning and destroying power.. . ... 

Vihen this is felt man desires to be rid of sin, .ahci!. 
asks what he must do to be saved, ' This is the fii^st 
step in repentance. Conversion and repentance, con^lete, 
are e:cp^ressions meaning the same thing. Our Lord^s 
illustration is instructive: '^fSien a woiiiafi is in trav- 
ail, she hath anguishj- but when she is delivered she 
straightway forge tteth har anguish for joy that a man 
is born into the world. 

These word from the lips of Jesus tell -us more about'- 
conviction and conversion than all else- that has ever-'^^^' 
been i-^^itten. 

We must notice the kindness in \diich /uiahias appro- 
ched Saul to complete the manvTard side of his conver-' \ 
sion and usher in the nevj birth , Pie put his hands on ' 
hiia, not roughly, but gently, and said: BROTHER SAUL, 
'^and immediately there fell from his eyes as it -had 
been scales: and he received sight forthwith, and arose/ 
and was baptised,*'' His spiritual eyes were now openj^ :' 
his sins washed awayj and out of the baptismal stream-'' 
he wa^ visibly born into the church a riex-^' creature in • 
Christ Jesus, with a new name, I hold the belief that 
Saul changed his name himself. His bid life was so' ab- 
horrent to him that he could no longer bear ^to hear the; 
name by which he was called when persuing that course '■ 
of life. It was his desire to. cast 'all recollection of 


it out -of mind, and the old name with it. But he never 

did forget entirely. He calls himself the chief of 
sinners, and almost gets wild with exultation over the 
mercies of God^ Hear some of his joyful exclamations: 
»»¥ho shall condemn u^J Who shall separate us from the 
love of Christ! 0, the length, and the breadth, and the 
depth and the height of the love of Christi" Paid never 
doubted his conversion. He became as enthusiastic in 
building up the church as he had been in tearing it 
down. He tried to repair the evil he had done by adding 
new recruits to the church to fill the places of those 
whom he had either driven out or caused to be martyred* 

Brethren and sisters, here is a lesson for us all. 
Let us follov; Paulas example in self-denial, in love 
for the Brethren, in love for the unconverted, in the 
love of doing good at all times and in all ways, 

-Elder John Kline, 18^3 


There is little practical difference between the 
ancient and modern aspects of this heresy. There are 
only different manifestations according to the circum- 
stances of the times. 

The term "antinomian, " simply stated, means AGAINST 
LAW. In its religious connotation it stajads in oppos- 
ition to any formulation of Christian duty, attempting 
to equate and confuse such with the demands of the law 
of Moses. It takes the New Testament passages referr- 
ing to the Jewish attitude tovrard the Mosaic law and 
applies them to the gospel precepts. It takes the 
warnings to Jewish Christians of the first century 
againt falling back upon the law of Moses and twists 
them into strictures against Christians , of today- 
becoming; careful to obey the law of Christ, The 
approach is to exalt an attachment to the person of 
Christ and downgrade ovr obligation to obey the Word 
of Christ (which is to dwell in us richly), when God 
never intended such a division of loyalty to exist/ 

Modern antinomianism says that the way we live is 


more important than what we believe, even to the point 
of branding any necessary attention to belief and 
practice as legalism. It purports to exalt the liberty 
of the gospelabove the plain commands of the gospel. 
It reduces discipleship to a "faith only»^ basis^ and 
makes an easy "believism" the only condition of member- 
ship in the chui-^ch. It is the modern piirveyor of 
cheap grace. 

One significant evidence of modern antinomianism ' is 
the misguided zeal with which our moderns are constant- 
ly to equate gospel obedience with a socalled 
"Pharisaism" and "legalism." Pharisaism and legalism 
indeed] They have become tiresome cliches. Every- ^ 
body who wants to rate with an tmdiscerning audience 
seems under nefarious compulsion to get in -on the act. 
These terms must have a pleasing sound to itching ears. 
Almost every other speaker before some of our school 
and college audiences echoes this old canard, and the 
students must like it^ for they re-echo what they have 
heard so often, and that still more indiscriminately. 
It is heard at some conferences and it appears over 
and over again in some of our church periodicals. 
¥e need desperately to lay this ghost. ¥e need to 
return to an emphasis on true gospel obedience. The 
tidal wave of worldliness and disobedience and adoles- 
cent rebellion in the church is a testimony to the 
bankruptcy of this emphasis which has now f lurished 
for a decade and a half. 

There should be no lack of stress upon the trans- 
forming power of the gospel (let us stress that even 
more)» But may we keep the proportional gospel before 
our people through a Scriptural emphasis on obedience 
and church order. Anything less is pure antinomianism. 

Ancient or modern, this is the sarae heresy. In its 
modern dress it may be ever the more dangerous, 
masquerading as the pure gospel, fooling people into 
a false hope for eternity, and destroying the foundat- 
ions of church life. 

— Editorial in Sword and Trumpet, 19$9 



Over two thousand years ago^ Cicero', the Roman 
philosopher and statesman, said that the six mistakes 
of men are: 

1. The delusion that individual "advancement is 
• made by crushing others; 
2,' The tendency to worry about things that cannot 

be changed or corrected; 
3» In sis ting that a thing is irtipossible because 

we cannot accomplish it; * 

■k» Refusihg to set aside trivial preferences; 

5« Neglecting development and refinement of the mind 
. and not' acquiring 'the .habit of reading and study; 
6. Attempting to compel other' persons to believe 

' and live as we do, ' 
Me shall atterf5)t to do more than avoid mistakes, . ".; 
Avoiding mistakes will not be considered a. positive 
program. There are seven things of a positive nature 
which, I would like to suggest as a general framework ^' 
in which' to operate. ,. "' ' . .. 

, . -. ■ ', "FOUR EiimS" BY HEMI.VAN DBOi • -. - • ^: ■ : 

Four things a nan must learn to do 
. -if he would keep his record true: 

,. ' To tiilnk without confusion clearly . • , 
To love his fellowmen sincerelj^ 
- To act froiii honest motives' purely .* . 
To trust, in Qod and heaven secixrely* 


He hath showed thee mati what is good; and what 
doeth the. Lord require of thee but to do justly^ to 
love mercy and to walk humbly with thy God 

If in facing our common task we use the spiritual 
and h'oraan resources x^hich are sp abundantly available 
we cannot fail* If x^re do not we cannot succeed, 

Deuteronomy 33:27; '^The eternal God is thy refuge 
and ijnderneath are the everlasting arms." 

^Selected ' . 



It cannot be questioned that both in Great Britain 
and imerica there is a subtle drift to Rome in many 
ways in Protestant circles • In England^ in many 
Anglican churches the communion service is called the 
Mass, insense is used, the host is elevated and worsh- 
ipe4^ there are statues of the Virgin Mary, and so 
forth. These practices are not too prevalent in our 
own Protestant churches as yet, but the Catholic 
Chijrch is growing id-th rapidity, and is exercising an 
enormous influence in our textbooks, movies, and the 

In the last century, Rome has become more devoted 
to Mariolatry than ever. Now the associate editor of 
the Catholic weetly^ AilERICA, in a message broadcast 
over ABC on Sunday, April 2U, acknowledging that Mari- 
olatry has proved a stumbling block to many Protestants, 
has urged the Protestant Church to reconsider what he 
called the Biblical texts "concerning the theological 
role of Mary»" He stated his hope that at the coming 
Ecumenical Council, the Protestant Church could be 
persuaded to study the question of "Our Lady as 
co-redemptrix. " 

Though there are some beautiful passages on the 
Virgin Mary in the New Testament, there is absolutely 
nothing there of a theological nature as far as her 
own person is concerned. It is very significant that 
the last time we have any reference to the Virgin Mar*y 
in the entire New Testament is before the Church of 
Christ is born^ namely, in the f iprst chapter of the 
book of Acts, where she is found kneeling with the 
apostles and brethren in prayer, waiting for the 
descent- of the Holy Spirit, She is given no prefer- 
ence or position of authority in that prayer meeting, 
and as far as we know, she exercised no unusual 
influence in any of the discussions on the appointment 
of Matthias; in fact^ her name is not mentioned in 
that account, 

— Selected by J,G» Hootman, Modesto, Calif, 


.(Condensed from the lectures of C.^ G. Finney, I8I48) 

CCircLUDlNG REI:vlARKS^ • ' ' ' " '' '" ": 

Tliere is an importance to be attached^to the sanctification - 
of the .BODY, of vMoh very few" persons appear to be awai-*et In-^' 
deed, tmless the bodily appetites and powers be consecrated to 
the service of God— imle^s we learn to eat> and drink> and, sleep, 
and'7ra2<:e, and labor, and rest, for the glory of God, permanent 
s anct if i cat i on as a pra ot i o al t hin g , i s out of the . q\i es t i on « It 
is plain, that very fevr persons are aware of the great influence 
which their bodies have over their minds, and of the indispen- 
sable necessity of bringing their bodies under, and keeping them 
in subjection. 

Few people seem to keep the fact steadily in view, that lonless 
their bodies be rightly managed, they mil be so fiece and over-^ 
powering a source of temptation to the rrlnd, as inevitably to 
lead it into sin« If they indulge themselves in a stiirlilating 
diet, and in the use of those condiments that irritate and rasp 
. the nervous system, their bodies mil be, of ccitrse and of neces- 
sity, t he s otD:^ c e of p OYrorf ul and ino e s s ant t eifipt at ion t o e vil 
tempers and vile affeablons^ If persons were a>mre of the great 
influence vfhioh the body has over the irand, t liey vrauld realize, 
that they cannot be too careful 'to preserve the m^rvoiis system 
from the influence , of • every improper article of food or drink, 
and preserve that system as they v/ould tb^e apple of their eye, 
from every influence tliat could impair its functions • No one who 
has opp ort -uni t y to a c qui re info n:i iat i on in r eg ar d 1 . t he : laws of 
life and health, and the best moans of sanctifying the whole 
spirit,' soul, and body, can be g-oiltless ii he neglects these 
meatiS of icn owl edge* Every man is bound to make the structure and 
LaT/s of both body and mind the subject of as thorough invest i- ' 
gation as his circumstances will permit, to inform' liims elf in 
regard to what are the true prinicples of perfect temperance, and 
in mat way the most can be made of all his powers of body and 
mind ;f or the glory of God. * . .' 

From what has /been said in these lectures, the reason why the 
church has not been entirely sanctified is very obvious* As a 
body the church has not believed that ' such a state was attainable 
until near the close of life. Md" this is a sufficient reason, 
and indeed the most weight ly. of all reasons, for her not having 
attained it» ' ■ 

From^-what has been said, it is easy to see, that the -true 
question in regard to entire saotification in this life is: Is 
it attainable as a matter of fact? Some have thought the proper 
question to be: Are Christians entirely sanctified in this life? 
Now certainly this is not the question that needs to be discussed. 
Suppose it to be fully granted that 'they are not,* this fact is 


sufficiently accounted for, hy the consideration that they do not 
know or belxere it to be attainable until the close of life* If 
they believed It to be attainable, it might no longer be true 
that they do not attain it. But if provision really is made for 
this attainment, it amounts to nothing, unless it be recognized 
and believed # The thing needed then is, to bring the church to 
see aad believe, that this is her high privilege and her duty* 
It i^S/enough, as has been sho-wn, to say that it is attainable, 
simply on the ground of natiural ability* But unless grace has 
put this attainment so mthin our reach, as that it may be aimed 
at with the reasonable prospect of success, there is, as a natter 
of fact, no more provision for our entire sanotification in 
this life, than for the devil' s« As has been said, it seems 
to be trifling with mankind, merely to maintain the attainability 
of this state, on the ground of natural ability only, and at the 
same time to tell them, that they certainly never will exercise 
this ability imless disposed to do so hy the grace of God; and 
furthermore, that it is a dangerous error for us to expect to re- 
ceive grace from God to sec\ire this result; that vre might by 
natural possibility make this attainment, but it is irrational 
and dangerous error to expect or hope to rnak:e it, or hope to re- 
ceive siifficient grace to secure it* 

The real q.uest ion is. Has grace brought this attainment so 
mthin our reach, that we may reasonably expect, by aiming 
at it, to experience it in this life? I insist therefore that 
the real question. is, whether the provisions of the gospel are 
such, that did the church fully understand and lay hold upon the 
proffered grace, she might attain this state? Are we as fully 
authori^ied to offer this grace to Christians^- as we are the grace 
of repentance aid pardon to sinner? iviay jm as consistently urge 
Qiristians to lay hold on sanctifying grace Sufficient to keep" 
them from all sin, as to urge sinners to lay hold of Christ for 
justification? llay we insist upon the one as really and as 
honestly as the other? . * ; 

We see how irrelevant and absurd the objection is, that as a 
matter of fact the chirch has not attained this state, and 
therefore it is not attainable, y^hy, if they have not understood 
it to be attainable, it no more disproves it* attainableness, 
than the fact that the heathen have not embraced the gospel, 
proves that they will not when they know it» Within my memory 
it was thought to be dangerous to call sinners to repent and 
believe the gospel; ,and on the contrary, they were told by Cal- 
vinists, tiiat they could not repent, that they must wait God's 
time; and it was. regarded as a dangerous error for a sinner to 
think that he could repent # But who does not know, that the 
thorough inculcation of an opposite doctrine has brought scores 
of thousands to repentance? Now the same course needs to be 
pursued with Christians,. Instead of being told, that it is dang- 
erous to expect to be. entirely sanctified in this life, they 
ought to be taught to believe at once, and take hold on the prom- 
ises of perfect love and faith* 

l62 . THE PILGRIM ' 

You see the necessity of fully preaching and insisting upon 
this doctrine, and of calling it by its true soriptuiul name* 
It is astonishing to see to -vrhat an extent there is a tendency 
among, men to avoid the. use of scriptural language, and to cleaTe 
±0 the language of such men as Edwards, and other' great and 
good divines* They object to the terms perfection and entire 
■sanotification, and prefer to use the terms entire consecratiori, 

■ and such other terms as have been common in the church* 

Now, I vrould by no means contend about the use of words; 
but still ij; does appear to me to be of great importance, that 

..we. use scripture language, and insist upon men being "perfect 
as , their Jather in fle^ven is perfect," and being "sanctified 
wholly, body, sotiI and spirit," This appea^rs to me to be the 
more" import ant for. this reason, that if we use the language 

V to whi ch t he o hur c h ha s b e en a c ous t o med up on' t lii s s ub j e ct , ^ s he 
mil, as she has done, misunderstand us, nnd will "not get be- 
fore her mind that which wo really mean* That this is so, is 
manifest from the fact, that the great mass of the church vail 
express alarm at the use of the term.s perfection and entire 
sanctification, who will neither express nor feel any such ?Jarm, 
if we speak of entire consecration* This demonstrates, that 
they do* not by any means understand these terms as meaning the 
same thing* ^d although I imderstarxd them as m.eaning precisely 
the same thing, yet I find myself obliged to use the terms per- 
fection and entire sanotification to possess their minds of 

■ their real meaning* This is Bible language* It is unobooction- 
able language* ilnd inasmuch as the ch^irch 'understands entire 
cons e oration to mean something less thai entire sanctification 
or Christian perfection, it does seem to me of great Lnportance, 
that imnistcrs should use a piiraeseology virhioh mil call the 
attention of the church to tnc real doctrine of the Bible upon 
this subject* Y/ith great huiidlity, I \mvla subiiiit the question 
to my beloved brethren in the ministry,' vvti ether they ax^e not 
a-i\^re, that Chi'istians have entirely too low. an idea of what 

is implied in entire consecration, and tmether it is not useful 
and best t o a d o pt a phr a e s e ol o gy in ad dr e s s i ng th em, t hat s 1 lall 
call their attention to xhe real meaning of the words which 
they us-eV 

Young converts* have not been allowed so much as to indtilge 
the thought that they could live even for a day Tjholly vdthout 
sin* They have as a general thing no more been taught to ex- 
pect immediate translation, soul and body, to heaven* Of course, 
they have not kno\m that there vTas any. other way than to go on 
in sin; and however shocking and distressing the necessity has 
appeared to them, in the ardor of their first love, still they 
have looked upon it as an unalterable fact, that to be in a 
great measure* in bondage to sin is a thing of course while they 
live in this world. Novr, with such an orthodoxy as this, %'Atla 
the conviction in the church and mj-nistry so ripe, settled and 
universal, that the utmost that the grace of God can do for men 
in this ^Torld is to bring them to repentance, and to leave than 
to live and die in a state of sinning and repenting, is it at 


all Tfjonderful, that the state of religion should be as it really 
has been? 

In looking over the results to Christians, of preaching the 
doctrine in question, I feel compelled to say, ttiat so far as 
all observation can go, I have the same evidence that it is truth, 
and^as such is oimed and blessed of God to the elevation of the 
holiness of Qiristians, as I have, that those are truths -which 
I have so often preached to sinners, and which have been blessed 
of^God to their conversion^ This doctrine seems as naturally 
calculated to elevate the piety of Christians, and as actually 
to resiilt in the elevation of their piety, under the blessing of 
God, as those truths that I have preached to sinners were to their 

Christ has been in a great measure lost sight of in some of 
his most important relations to maiikind. He has been kno^m and 
preached as a pardoning and justif> Savious; but as an actually 
indwelling and reigning Savious in the heart, he has been but 
little known. I was struck vrith a remark a few years since, of 
a brother miom I have from that time greatly loved, who had been 
for a time in a desponding state of mind, borne do^m mth a 
:great sense of his own vLlenes^, but seeing no v/ay of escape* 
At an evening meeting the Lord so revealed himself to him, as 
entirely to overcome the strength of his body, andhis brethren 
were obliged to carry him_ home. The next time I sa^r him, he e^ii- 
claimed to me mth a pathos I sliall never forget, "Brother Finnev, 
the church have buried the Saviour," Now it is no doubt true, 
that the church have beoom.e a^/fiilly alienated from Christ~h^ve 
in a great measure lost a knowledge of what he is, and ought to 
be to her; arid a great niany of her members, I have good reason 
to know, in different parts of the country, are sayiriif with deeu 
and overpovrering emotion, "They have taken a-my my Lord, and I " 
know not x-riiere they have laid him.** 

With all. her orthodoxy, the church has been for a lon^" time 
much nearer to Unitarianism than she has imagined, This^Vemark 
may ^ shock some of my readers, and you may think it ^savors of cen- 
sorxousn^ss* But, beloved, I am sure it is said in no such 
spirits These are "the wo.rds of truth and soberness." So 
little has been known of Christ, that, if I am not entirely mis- 
taken, there are multitudes in the orthodox churches, who do not 
knovf Christ, and who in heart are Unitarians, while in theory 
they are orthodox. They have never known Christ, in the sense 
of mich I have spoken of him in these lectures, 
(concluded next issue) 

It is my experience that those who are the most positive 
about political problems are able to be positive only be- 
cause they do not know all of the rele^nt facts. Those 
T^o are, most harsh in their judgment are able to be harsh 
for the same reason, Vfeen the whole of a problem is kncfvm, 
solutions become excessively difficult and jtidgments are 
not easily made. —John Foster Dulles 

1614. ■ THE PILGRII4 



Number of persecutions » Hitherto we have f ollo^red 
the progi'ess of Glirlstlaiiity through nearly all the 
provinces of the Roman empire, and some countries irith- 
out its limits, a,B' if >?e had be.en attending a triumphal 
procession. The less pleasing duty remains to describe 
its difficultieg an.d its afTlictions. And in so doing 
it is not easy to ascertain the precise path of truth, 
entangled as it is, on one side, by the exaggerated 
fictions of enthusiasts, and perplexed, on the other, 
by the perversity of skopticism. 

Early, though not the most ancient, ecclesiastical 
historians, followed by merij moderns, have fixed the 
number of perseuctions at ten; and if we :thought proper 
indiscrj-iTiinately to aesignate by that naiue every partial 
outrage-^ to which Christians were subjected from the 
reign of Nero' to" that of Constantine, perhaps even this 
number might be considerably extended. On the other 
hand, GiblDon has so caref ijilly palliated the guilt and 
softened dox^jn the asperity of those successive inflic- 
tions,, that in his Representation not one of them 
weai^s -a serious aspect, excepting that of Diocletian; 
though he adiTiits that some ^transient excesses may be 
charged upon Nero, .Oomitian., Decius, and perhaps one or 
two others. 

Differing In many respects from 'that author in our 
view of this portion of history, .and animated, perhaps,- 
by a more general and impartial humanity, \m ar-e still 
mixing, in this matter, to make some concessions to his 
opinion I and though other occasions to prove the sin- 
cerity and constancy of Cliristians were abundantly pre- 
sented, yet we -are not disposed to impute the sham.e of 
deliberate unrelenting persecution to more than four 
or five among the em.perorsj but in one important respect 
our estimate of these events will still differ from 
that of the philosophical historian, as we shall bestow 
as much greater share of attention on the conduct of 


Marcus Antoninus, Our reasons will appear in the pro-* 
grass of the narrative » 

Nero , The persecution of Nero was the first to which 
the Christian name was subjected, and the best account 
-tiiich has reached us respecting it is that of the hist- 
orian Tacitus, itiich we have translated in a former , 
chapter. From his description it appears, that the 
B-^-^ferlngs of the Ciiristians did not originate in any- 
evil that had been committed by them, nor even in the 
general calumnies T-itich blackened their character, but 
in a specific charge., which was notoriously false, that 
they had occasioned the destructive conflagration so 
generally attributed to the madness of the Emperor him- 
self. The nature of their tortures is related, and the 
very spots particularized on i/iiich they were inflicted. 
But their duration is not mentioned, nor the extent to 
which the persecution prevailed (if it at all prevailed) 
in other parts of the empire. The fact, that it arose 
in the first instance from a charge which 'was. necessar- 
ily not a conclusive argument that it might not after 
wards spread beyond the boundaries of the cityj and, yet 
both the words andthe silence of Tacitus ai^e such as 
indirectly persuade us, that the calamity, which he is 
describing, was both local and transient. The irnperfect 
account of Eusebius throws little more light on. these ■ 
questions, ^^tiich have in vain divided the opinions and 
exercised the ingenuity of a multitude of critics. For 
our own part, if that were sufficiently proved lAhich is 
continually asserted, that the persecution lasted for 
four- years, until the death of Nero, we should very 
readiJ.y admit the probability that it was general. But 
whatever uncertainty may rest on this point, the expres- 
sions of the Pagan, historian unliappily convey sufficient 
evidence that the assault was exceedingly destructive 
and attended by every circumstance of barbarity. 

Much difference has also existed respecting the laws 
supposed to have been enacted by Nero against the Chris- 
tians, and their continuance or repeal by subsequent , 
emperors > And this question is so far at least connect- 
ed ,-mth the preceding, that the mere existence of any 


general edicts against Christians AS SUCH^ proves that 
the particular charge on i-iiich the persecution was 
founded had been gradually lost in more general accusa- 
tions^ viiich had been followed by general inflictions* 
But even in this case^ it becomes a question^ whether 
Nero's edicts proceeded sny further than to enforce 
against Christians specifically the ancient statutes ' 
universally directed against religious innovation— 
whether it was not rather a precedent which that emperor 
established, than a law which he enacted— a precedent 
which v;ould be followed or disregarded by his success- 
ors as their chai^acter and religious policy niiglit lead 
them to" execute or suspend the stancling statutes of the 
empire. At least it is vStrange that^ when his other 
laws were repealed, that against the Christians should 
alone remain in force, i:mless we conclude that that 
alone had existed before his time, and had been applied 
or perverted, but not enacted by hiia* 

Domitian , After this first affliction, the Christians 
passed about th.'a'ty yeai's.iii the silent and undistm^bed 
propagation of their religion. In the yeai- 91+ or 95> 
they again attracted the attention of the civil power, 
by exciting as it would seem, the political fears of the 
eniperor. Domdtian was no doubt acquainted, with an anc- 
ient prophecy prevalent throughout the east, and prob-/ 
ably an imperfect adujaibration of the prophecies of the 
Old Testament, that the imperial sceptre was destined 
one day to pass into the hands, of a,Jew.« Tnis led to 
some inquiries into uhe actual condition of the royal 
fairiily of Jerusalem.; and the grandsons of St. Jude the 
apostle, the brother of the Saviour, are said to have 
been brought before the tlirone of the tyrant: but his 
jealousy was disarmed by their poverty and simplicity,— 
alia their x^hole property consisted in one small far^m of 
abo^it twenty-four acres. And when the amperor inquired, 
rovspec ting the nature of the monarch who was to rise up 
from aaon^ them, he was informed, 'that his kingdom was 
not of earth, but heavenly and angelical j andthat in the 
completion of time he would come in gloxy to judge both 
the living and the dead, according to their merits,' 
They were dismissed mthcut injury; and soon after 


this event, some severities , which had lately been ex- 
ercised against the Christians, were suspended by the 
prudence or the death of the emperor, 

— Xfeddington's History of the Church. 


"Oh, shame," we cry, as the heathen pray 
To their idols of brass or wood or clay. 
"The Gospel of Christ they should be told." .. 
Then we turn and bow to our gods of gold. 
(le cannot serve God and mammon.) 

"Ah, pity," we cry, as men seek for pleasure 

In the carnal lusts that they count as treasure. 

Then we t-orn and reach, with, a greedy shout. 

For the tinsel toys the world holds out. 

(The friendship of the world is enmi-ty mth God.) 

"Oh, shame," we cry, as men go astray,. 
To turn, each one, his own wicked way; 
And we never consider the consequences 
Of our own small disobediences* - 
(All disobedience is sin.) • ^" • ' 

"0 Lord," we cry, "Bring Thy lost sheep in 

Fromx the shades of night, from the ways of sin." 

Then we quickly forget the words we say. 

And step aside from the Master »s way. 

(To #iom ye yield— his servants ye are.) 

"Oh, pity and shame J Do they coimt the cost, 
Tho^ they gain the world, if their souls are lost?" 
But perhaps more souls would be marked as His 
If our lives were as pure as our doctrine is, . 

•-i Selected ^ \. , 



^ ^JMES— . . ., . 

' ^' This part ox om'* Bible is addressed to the twelve 
tribes of Israel^ but certainly applies to all followers 
of the Lord Jesus, It was viritten about 60A,D. by 
Jaraes, a brother of Jesus. Ke is called a "pillar" by 
the Apostle Paul and seems to have been very inf*luential 
in the ear^ly chui^ch. (Acts 15:13-21.) 

This epistle is very concise^ direct^ and easy to 
understand. It is maiixly instructive in the actua.1 
problems and e^rper-dences ox our Christian lives. In 
this epistle we learn how to resist temptation, .what is 
required of us, how to live closer to God, how to.obtajji 
wisdom. It inspii'^es . us to greater patience, true, faith 
and works, more humility, and. greater trust in God, Vfe 
are warned against partiality, against offending others, 
against envy and strife, and sti^ongly against trusting 
in riches* fe are also comi'orted by.promses of help ^ 

in time of affliction and .sickness. 

In the la^t. verses the apostle stresses the import- ^ 

ance of prajang for, each otiier and. of converting those 
who have "erred from the^ truth." He uses the 
of Elijali's success in praying that it might not rain 
for three and a half-years to illustrate to us the effect- 
iveaess of fervent prayer. _ ■". '' _ ; 

1, — -How can we vcbts in vdsdom?' -'' , '■ 

2. — VJhat description is given of msdom that is from j 

above? ,. . . ' . ■ ' . ■■ I 

3t — What is pure religion? , .',.. ... 

U,— How are vje tempted? • .• ,^. 

5, — Miat people ai^e described as enerrdes of God? 

Leslie E, Cover 
Sonera, California 



''Dearly beloved, I beseech you os strangers and pilgrims, abstain 
from fleshly lusts/ which war against the soul," I Peter 2:11 

■ : MOSES •■ '. ■-■■--^r: . /: 

'»I*d rather be a speck of dust ■ '^ 
On.Nebo^s barren side 
Than in a' great sar'cophagus 
To lie in pomp and pride »" 
• Thus Moses might have told himself, 
"For. God has filled my days 
With blessing better than the g-oM'-:- 
Of Egypt's slni^cil ways. ' '—' ' .-. 

"The Lord has been my cloud of fire 5, • 

He walks and talks with me 

E^er since the bush that would not burn 

Caused me to look and see. . 

Now I behold fair Canaan's "shore, ' ..: 

But my own promised land^ 

^^ihere I shall see the face of God, 

Is heaven's happy strand. 

"I die and angels shall come down 

To lay my flesh away. 

But they shall take' my "^ spirit up^' 

To God'S: own hpuse^ today." '-.• ^ -^ ^-v-v..' 

No other mortal had such "fame i' '- ""•-.■.■.'. 

For no one lived with God 

Like he whose body lies today 

On Mebo's sacred sod. 

— Selected . 

THE PILGRIM is a religious magazine published monthly by Daniel F. Wolf in the 
interests of the members of The Old Brethren Church. Subscription rate: $1.50 per year. 
Sample copies sent free on request. Address: THE PILGRIM, Rt. 3, Box 1378, Modesto, Calif. 


The origin of "ijnnual Meeting" in the Dunker or 
Brethren church is uncertain as to date and the circum- 
stances that produced it» However, historians are 
agreed that as a formal church counsel it did not come 
into being before the middle of the eighteenth century 
(1750). E.G. Brumbaugh^ in History of the Brethren, 
claims it to have resulted from the Brethi-*en's reaction 
to what was kno>m as The Pennsylvania Synods of 17U2j 
in which an effort was made to unite all the German 
"sects" of Pennsylvania into one body. He says the 
Brethren took part in the first three of these synods 
(there were seven in all) and then withdrew and organ- 
ized an annual meeting of their own in defence against, 
what they considered, the false doctrines that were 
propagated there. 

In History Of The Brethren, under "Origin of Annual 
Meeting," page U71> he says in part: 

"In the beginning the church had no representative 
body and no general conference. The congregational 
unit was maintained, and frequent visitations from one 
congregation to another preserved the spirit of unity. 
There is no evidence of a need for a general conference 
from the membership. But there is abundaiat evidence 
to prove that Annual Meeting was imposed upon the chiorch 
by influences from without. Annual Meeting was created 
as a means of defence and as a means of edification. 
It is a distinct creation of a verjr remarkable movement 
among the German sects of Pennsylvania, known as The 
Pennsylvania Synods of 17U2." 

But Elder Henry Kxirtz, in Brethren's Encyclopedia, 
1867, supposes the Annual Meeting to be a natural de- 
velopment from the tendency of elders and others to 
seek counsel of one another when they were together at 
the big yearly "lovef easts" or communion meetings, so 
well known in the Old Order Brethren chiirches. 


Although he supposes it to be a natural development.- 
of such informal counseling of elders, he offers no 
certain proof, and it will be seen from his own stater- 
ment that even thoug^i there may have been such. inf. oar^^^^l 
.counseling from a very early date, yet he-daestTnot eee 
any formal yearly counsel . until '»a little, -after the, • 
middle of la^t.. century, "..which vxould be a. little aft^er 
1750. It is quite probably that there i^ -no .conflict 
in these two. accounts, as both fix the approxiroa-te. .date 
around 1750. Elder Kiarts may not have- had^, to. --. 
the same sources of information as Brumbaugh did.-. ,.- .find:, 
apparently Rrumbaugh. takes. no notice of the natural 
development which produced the setting and thinking. , ... 
that would readily accept the formal Anjiual. Meeting, . •.. 
such as he says, began, with the' Brethren in 17U2» At 
any rate, both agree that there,, was nO; formal annual- . 
meeting prior to. that date. -;: ^ . - . 

The oldest Annual Meeting minutes on record is for , 
the year 1778,.. . A request to have all the minutes of -. . 
Yearly i^ieetings collected and printed in volume waa ''-; ^ 
presented to the Annual Meeting of 1858 which was ^i; 
rejected (Old Minute. Book, page 222, Art, %)^ In l8ql- 
this request .was renewed and granted for the first .■•- 
time (Ibid, page 250, Ai^t. .6)*, '■ -•- 

Thus it is seen, iorom- the best records which the 
Brethren have, that they did not have any formal yearly 
counsel. until about fifty years, after the. firs^ organ- 
ization in Germany, .And for some; reason --th^y. would ;.. 
not -consent to have their minutes rpublishgd ypitil 
another hundred ye;ar 6 later. .;.. '-i^.y:. v ;..: . ■■ 

In Brethren's Encyclopedia, pag^vlO, Elder KurtB 
gives a description of -how the.finat Annual Meetings 
were held in the :Brethren church,, as follows: 

"■Hiat they were held in, the. most simple manner, 
even as our ordinary council meetings have been held 
up to our own time, is evident f:r^om all the history we 
could. gather, Brethr;en met on P^iday morning before 
Pentecost, and opened as usual by singing, exliortation, 
prayer, and, perhaps, reading the. Scriptures. Having 
met in the fear of the Lord, anc^ invited him to preside 
over the meeting, and prayed for the Holy Spirit to 
guide and direct all hearts, they considered the meeting 


ready for business. Cases were presented and decided, 
questions asked and answered, all by word of mouth, as 
in ordinary council meetings* There was no clerk 
chosen nor minute taken, and hence it is that our 
records are so meagre for the first twenty five or 
thirty yearly Pentecostal meetings • But as will be 
made tt> appear more at large in our forthcoming "History 
of -the Brethren'^ when any important case or cases had 
been presented, it was answered afterward by letter to 
the church or churches that had presented them* Oif 
these irianuscript letters a goodly number yet extant 
have been collected with great care and are" embodied 
in this present work»" 

A comparison of these first simple counsels in the 
Brethren church, as described by Elder Kurtz, with 
those of the primitive chuxxhes, as described by the 
historians in last month's article on "Councils," shows 
a remarkable similarity. And, also, a study of the 
minutes of the annual meetings in the Brethren church 
will show how it developed from these first simple 
beginnings into a regular delegated authorative organ - 
ization , similar in pattern (but not to the same extent) 
to the great ecclesiastical Councils of the Nicean and 
middle ages which gradually evolved from those first 
simple meeting in the primitive churches* 

For emphasis, x-re requote, in part, from the Schaff 
Heraog Religious Eiicyclopedia as follows; 

"A full understanding of the origin (of church 
councils) cannot be obtained without remembering the 
constant intercourse by means of accredited representa- 
tives which the primitive Christian communities main- 
tained. If a local church T^ras distracted hj discord, 
the neighboring churches felt boiind to assist in the 
restoration of order* When peace was restored after 
a storm of persecution, even distant churches sent 
envoys to express their joy. If a bishop was to be 
chosen in a small church, the delegates of the larger 
communities round about assisted in the deliberations* 

It is then on the surface scarcely a step further 
to the assembly of representatives of a number of 
churches fotr the purpose of reaching a common decision 
on a disputed question. But a little reflection will 


show that it i£ not the same thing. Both the discuss- 
ion of a local question with assistance from . the out - 
side 3 and the meeting to discuss a question which 
affected a number of communities alike, sprang from 
the primitive Christian feeling of unity and from the 
consequent mutual intercourse 5 but they had different 
aims and significance ^ " 

*rhat the two kinds of meetings just described in 
the above quotation "are not the same " , and that they 
*^different aims , and significance " is the burden of ^ and 
key to, this writing, and is the reason for pointing 
out in our first article on this subject that the X'vrords 
"Council,". "Conference, " "Conventions," etc, when used 
in their proper sense, may indicate somewhat different 
proceedui^es . 

A careful and continued study of the history of 
Annual Meeting in the Brethren churchy as contained in 
the minutes and other sources, for a period of about 
150 yeai*s, from its beginning around 175^0 to the gi^eat 
divide in 1881-82 and into the first decade of I9OO, . 
indicates that many sincere brethren in positions of 
leadership in. the brotherhood .may not have recognized 
the difference in principle of the two systems, or if 
it was recognized a conflict existed between the* tvTo 
ideas, the former px*evailing for nearly one hundred 
years to near the middle of the 19th century (aro^and 
1850) when the change began to be made, and rapidly 
developed into the latter system of a Federal Athorative 
Organization, v/hich exercised a new authority over local 
churches in the brotherhood, forcing them into coiiform- 
ity to the new organisation. 

v^nile there raa*^^ have been many who did not perceive 
the difference in the two systems, there were those who 
did see that the newly developing system was concentrat- 
ing the govermaent of the church into the hands of a 
central federal organization. In 1868-69 a number of 
elders, representing the Old Order part of the brother- 
hood, met and formulated a petition to the Annual Meet- 
ing, solemnly protesting this new f^de^l type of 
organization. See Old Mnute Bo^^'p^s 1U>15. " 



NO. 1 
J. I, Cover ' • • 

We believe there is the inner man^ as well as the 
outward man (II Cor. Ii:l6). The inner inan never grows 
old^ but can be "renewed day by day," God*s choicest 
blessings are bestowed on the inner man, and are the 
good and perfect gifts of Godo We are responsible and 
indebted to God for every good thingo 

By appreciating the good blessings, gifts, and tal- 
ents that God bestows upon us "according to our several 
ability;" the INCREASED blessing and reward can be ours 
as Jesus says; "For whosoever hath shall be given, and 

he shall have more abundance ." Matt, 13:l6o "For 

he that hath to him shall be given -," Mark )4:25, 

"Take heed therefore how ye hear for whosoever hath to 
him shall be given »" 'Luke 8:l8. "For I say uirbo you, 
that unto everyone which hath shall be given - - -," 
Lulce 18:26, These promises should make us feel very 
humble, and grateful to our Heavenly Father, for the 
final fulfillment of added blessings and favors reaches 
to the bliss of the gift of eternal life thorough Jesus 
Christ our Lord^ 

Since sin came into the world, mankind has been sub- 
ject to ^ temptation, arid to partake of the evils of sin, 
so the very good functions of the outward ana inward 
man can be perverted to become the instruments ox un- 
righteousness; and herein we are conscious of the 
struggle of christians to be separate from the x^rorld— 
to cast the evils out that the good may expand and grow. 
Here' is the sorrow and trevail to "abstain from fleshly 
lusts which war against the soul;" »»to crucify the flesh 
With the affections cm.d lusts: "-a lifetime work; at 
which we may at times despairingly cry, "0 wretched man 
that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this 

Thanks be to God, deliverance, and coir^^lete separa- 
tion are coming. "The son of man shall send forth his 
angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom ALL 

THE PILGRm . 175 

THAT OFFEND arid them which' do iniquity" Matt, 13:iil." 
Then indeed the r.edeemed souls can expand and grow, 
having been at l^st .-separated .firom temptation, sin and 
death. For this we lon^, hope and prayj for this we 
continue in the w^f are agains t temptation, s in and 
Satan. For this hope of final complete separcitidn we 
look forward t*o the New Jerusalem., for Jesus s^ys," 
"And there .shall in no wise enter into it anything that 
defile th neither xliatsoever wo rketh abomination, or ' ' 
maketh a lie: but they whicii are written in the Lamb^s 
book of life." Hev. 21:27« The final call: "Come ye 
blessed of my Father., inherit the kingdom prepared for' 
you from the foundation of the world, "(ifett. 25014.) 
separates forever from every evil influence and sin. 

"■ Take a\fay the dross, : 

- • Fill me mth thy love;: 

Keep me near the cross, 
ill thy goodness prove» 

. • Keep me near thy side, 
• .- ^ Let me follow thee; .... 

Shun the road so mde, 

Jalthful let me be, ^ *~" - -^ ■•"'•• - 

Let me travel on, ^ • • ,. r .. 

Up the narrow -way; ^ ' ■" 

lill rrSf day is gone,' ' ' ■ ' ^' •■''■ -^^^^ .• 

Be my-. staff and stay*. '.:'" - -.■ 

l*hrough,the starry sky, , " .', . *'■' 

^^■J^l- company blest; ' " ''^ '-"'^ --■ ' 

Bear mb safe onhigh,' .-•= .■*.^'\' '\ '" .:..'■ 
Gently. let me rest # ,:•-'■. .■ ... r ■ ■ 

"vValce me in the morn, 
>•'■' 'Of eternal day; ^ - ■ - ^ ;. ' '' ■; .-;■ 
• . ■■ : ;.,.> Sound; thy tinampet horn,- ,-:.. ■ ■. 

. :. ■ , . Vvliere. my.body lay* 

■-' -' • 'Call me to thy home,- -- • ■ .' 

• - ' • ». . Free from every sin; r =. / ' ... 

^ , ■ Ml-X the ransomed .come, 

. Crowife of glory mn« 

' ' - Thine shall be the praise,.:^ 

Sotinding heaven's song; , .... 

■ . ' *Good are all thy ways, 

&ng of heaven's throng*' 


Benjamin Bo-wman^ 1857 

Hearing may be that of mere sound* Brutes hear in 
this way. A horse, near the stand, may hear a sermon, 
but it will be that of mere sound to him» I have known. 
of PEOPLE hearing somewhat after the same manner. They 
can tell nothing, and seem to remember nothing of what 
they have heard. Some hear to criticise the preacher *s 
style of expression, including his language^ moduMion 
of his voice, and gestures. Others- hear as the Phari 
sees and Herbdians tried to hear Christ, "that they 
might catch him in his talk;" and like the scribes and 
Pharisees, "laying wait for him, to catch something out 
of his mouth" with which to accuse him* But these are 
not the only profitless hearings which the God-loving 
and soul -loving nUnister of the Gospel has to mourn 
over. The lives of , some PROVE that they hear mainly 
from a desire to make others think that they have great 
respect for religion and the Wora of God# They go to 
church and hear, but heed nothing. "By their fruits 
shall ye KNOVJ them." If people were rightly to obey 
the injunction of my text, all such heedless and profit-^ 
less hearing •&vt>uld, be at an end^ 

But how is the injunction of the text to be obeyed? 
Andhow is one to know when he is obeying it? The com- 
mand means that the hearer shall TAKE HEED, This means 
"WATCH*" What must. he watch? "HOW HE HEAIiS*" The 
text has relation, not to WHAT ye hear, but HOW ye hear. 
It does not point to the subject matter or the manner 
of the address, but to the end FOR which and to the 
spirit IN which it is hear. If the hearfelt desire of 
the hearer is to learn truth, that he may be enlightened 
and^iven to see the way of eternal life, he may feel 
assured that his hearing is acceptable to God. He will 
then not be a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, 
and such a one shall be blessed in his deed. 

It is enjoined upon ^11 to hear INTELLIGENTLY, for 
this belongs to the MANNER of hearing. No one can hear 
a sermon understand ingly without some previous knowledge 


of the subject matter of the discourse^ To acquire.'. 

this knowlege every one should read and study the Woard 

of Divine Truth.. It is.- able to^ fnake all "wise untip . . 

salvation."' Intelligent knowledge of the Scriptures; 

can be acquired only by patient study of themt.but i-Aien 

.they, are studied to. th§ illuminatidn of the lander stand- 
ing, xhe .truth, like i^mter in a -well, rises up. to the, unierstand- 
In2 and meet^ you* Me somexirriBS liear xt saia of one- 

who listens attentively and intelligently, **He seemed . 

to drink in every word spoken." This, I. think j. is : what 

the Lord means by these words to the woman at, ithe..w^ll: 

"He that drinketh of this watei^ shall thirst. again:- but 

he that drinketh of the water that I' shall^ g.ive_- hA^% '■-• 

shall never thirst* but' it shall be in hir. a well,'.Qf-:i.;. 

water spi-^inging up into everlasting, life," - To:.hear::ithe 

jbruth attentively am understand! nglj- is to drink, it- in, 

as we drink water when we are thirsty. ■■. r 

VJhat I have said, however important it may be to 

know, does not iiover the entire ground comprehended in 

the text, I must -show you another element vihich must 

exist in the i-iAMEH of all right hearing* That element 

is DISCRIMINATIOM. Without this, how is the hearer to 

I know whether the truth .or its opposite is being preached? 

The. comparison may lack adaptability' in. some ox its . . 

points,, but I have heard it said that some hearers i> 

are like young birds in their nest, ready to swallow 

. down anything put into their mouths. Such as hear this 

way lack DISCPJrCEMATIONj that isy they do not discern 

the difference between wiriat is true, and -wha-t is false. 

This is particularly the case such as have been 

• trained to regard, what their own denomination ministers 

preach as. being the truth, the \hole truth, and no thing 

but the iruth. Lam aware that some may just hew be' 

, -saying in their mind.3: "You Dunkard people: arei ttie. .:• t 

^ very- onea to i/Jtrom your words most .;justly apply; 'for I-f 

know of no. people who take :So great paints to instil 

this very belief into the minds of -the young as you do." 

I.-ean truthfully say that .such charges are not strange.' me.- But with all due respect for Such as. differ - 

from us in religious faith and practice,- I do say that 

I we., as . a denomination of Chris.tiai brethren, acknowled- 

l ging no teacher but Christ, no authority but his Word, 


have no will, wish or desire to lead the truth and thus 
pervert, ignore or misapply any part of it; but, our 
will, wish and desire is to be led by the truth. And 
I do not in my heart believe there in one member of 
our Brotherhood who would desire to instill into the 
mind of his or her child any belief or practice not 
sustained by a plain "THUS BAITH THE LOED. " In this 
very way the power of DISCRIMINATION is developed in 
the minds of our young people, so that when they hear 
or read they do not question whether this or that that 
they hear or read has for its authority the Methodist 
Discipline, the Episcopal Prayer Book, or Lutheran 
Catechismj but they at once perceive that it either has 
or has not the sanction of God's Word. We are taught 
that in a spiritual sense no one is to be called rabbi, 
^*Be not ye called rabbi j for One is your teacher, and 
all ye are brethren, Ard call no man your f athpr on the 
earth J for one is yoiar Father in heaven,}* How the mind 
might expatiate here in makeing historic disclosures of 
the times and ways in >iiich this plain cortimand of our 
Lord has been violated! Hearing the Word preached, and 
the hearer not able to discern truth from falsehood, 
has given to priestcraft nearly all of its power; be- 
cause priestcraft, unsupported by the common people, 
could never have risen into power. If the common peo- 
ple had been wise enough to take heed how they hear they 
never would have siiffered themselves to be imposed upon 
as they have been, 

I now take, up the last but not the least element in 
the MANMEIi of hearing. That element is SINCERITY; ^^ich 
I define to be a heartfelt love for the truth. Paul 
puts it "receiving the truth in the love of it.'^ The 
person ^Jio hears the truth lightly, thoughtlessly, care- 
lessly is not instructed by it. The same is true of 
one Thfio hears with prejudice against the truth. He 
refuses to be instructed, because he does not love the 
truth he hears. Let me use an illustration here. Two 
men once happend to meet at my house, one a Presbyterian 
and the other a member of no church. After dinner the 
subject of feet-washing was broached. After we had all 


talked • awhile about it one of the men asked me where- 
abouts in the Bible it was to be found, I turned to 
the thirteenth chapter of John's Gospel, and he then 
asked me to' read it aloud* I dii so« These Vwo men 
listened :attentively,' so, at least, they ^peared to 
me. The Presbyterian friend -very modestly gave it as' 
his opinion that the oommand is fully met by acts- of 
hospitality, and referred to the recepMbn which Abra- 
ham gave the three angels wiio came to his tent as 
proof of the correctness of his conclusion. Very 'little 
more was said about it at that time. The two men, soon 
-after, vjent away together; and I had little or no con- 
versation with either of them for probably nearly a 
year afterward. But it so turned -out that' ■ the' "pne TrJho 
.was. net a professor of religion came ■ to my house again, 
and showed a desire to talk on the subject of feet- 
washing again, -I was ready to ansx^er such questions 
as he proposed; and. he very e-oon expressed a'l/ish to 
know if I remembered having once read the thirteenth 
chapter of John's Gospel to him >dien on a call at my '' 
house, I told him I did remember it, "Your i^eading' • 
of that chapter," said, he, "struck my mind with so' 
.much force that I could not rid myself of the impress- 
ion it made, I never, until then, loiew there was any- 
thing so plain in the Scriptures, and so easy to under- 
stand. I had always thought the Bible was a bock of 
dark sayings, unintelligible to any but the learnedj 
and even in .their hands doubtful as to its true inter- 
pretation. Since then I have been reading ity especi- 
ally the New Testament part of it, and find so much 
that I can ijinderstand that I begin to love it," Thave 
only to add that this man scon applied for membership 
in our church, was baptized, and manifested enthusiastic 
delight in obeying the comraand, "-So ought ye also to 
wash one another's feet," at the first love feast, he 
ever attended. . •■ ^ \; ;,: 

In connection with the case I. have, just described, 
the two men spoken of heard with different ear.s,, ;The .. 
ear of tb4^^irs,t was so modified by previous' indoatr in-* 
ations that it could almost shut itself in and. become' 


deaf or callous when t\ie plain truth was read: the ear 
of the last was open to take in the truth; and the mind, 
being free from prejudice, received the truth from the 
love of it» "Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs: 
is th6 kingdom of heaven," The Lord includes all such 
hearers as the one I have just described, in the pro- 
mised blessing* • 

"Take -heed HOW ye hear." In speaking on this text 
so much comes before mj. mind that it is diff icxxlt for 
me to stop, I must say something to the unconverted' 
sinner. The Lord says to you: "Repent, for the king- 
dom- of heaven is at hand*" This means that' you shoxiLd 
turn away from your sins and enter the kingdom of hea- 
ven* "Let the wicked forsake his way, and the xim-ight- 
eous man his thoughts; let him return unto the Lord, 
for he will have mercy upon him; and unto oiu' God, for 
he will abundantly pardon." And Jesus says: ""Whoso- 
ever Cometh unto me, I will in no wise cast out." To 
come unto the Lord is to hear his Word with full purpose 
of heart to understand it, see its truth, believe it 
and<5bey it. I beg every unconverted person in this 
hotlse to ask himself just now: "How do I hear what the 
preacher has just now said? Do I hear it with a thought- 
less, careless ear? If -^ do, what is to become of me? 
Can I bear to hear the voice from the judgment throne 
say: ^Depart, ye workers of iniquity, into everlasting 
fire*? Would I not better 'seek the Lord while' he may ' 
be found, and call upon him while he is near*?" 0, 
that all might hear aright, repent and live, for with 
the Lord there is plenteous redemption; and he is able 
to save to the. uttermost all who come unto God by him^. 

— Life and Labors of Elder John Kline, 

"Know therefore that the Lord thy God, he is God, 
the faithful God, which keepeth covenant and mercy 
with them that love him and keep his commandments to 
a thousand generations; And repayeth them that hate 
hiiTi to their face, to destroy them: he will not be 
slack to him that hateth him, he will repay hiia to 
his face." Deut. 7:9,10 



The throne of David is mentioned frequently in the 
Old Testament Scriptures and once in the New, It- is 
mentioned specifically twelve times in the Bible, Much 
has been said about this tlirone in some circles and 
emphasis is placed on the assertion that Jesus shall 
sit upon this earthly, temporal throne when He shall 
come again and rule over Israel and the nations. If 
we take the trouble to search the Scriptures, we shall 
find that David's throne, although earthly, was a very 
distinct type of the heavenly throne, ¥e need not 
spiritualize the Scriptures to "prove this as they are 
very clear and very literal. The throne upon which 
David sat is harcQ^y in existence today. It is hai^dly 
reasonable to suppose that it could have lasted three 
thousand years in a world of change and deccty, 

Israel was a theocracy, God z^uled the 'nation as 
their invisible King, I Sam, 8:7. When Israel reject- 
ed Him as their King, He still reserved the right to 
place upon the throne whom He wo^old, proving the tiirone 
was His, He first chose Saul because this was the kind 
of man the people wanted, I Sam, 10: 2u, Saul began 
his reign well, carrying out the will of the Lord, This 
did not last long, for he began to carry on his reign 
in his own self-will, and it was then that God rejected 
him (I Sam 13:lLj l5:23b) and chose David, a man after 
His own heart, '^A man cifter his o>?n'^ means one 
who would do His will. Here was the difference between 
Sa^xL and David, Saul carried on in his ox^rn self-will, 
while David inquired of the Lord what he should do as 
soon as he was anointed king, even before his reign ' 
begaJi, I Sam. 23:2, U; 30:8| II Sam, 2:1| 5:19, 23^ 

David fully realized always that the throne of the 
kingdom was the Lord*s and that he ruled Israel under 
God, In his prayer of thanksgiving unto God when the 
people gathered to offer for the building of the temple, 
David said, "Thine^ Lord, is the greatness, and the 
power, and the glory, and the victory, and the majesty: 
for all that is in the heaven and in the earth is thine. 


thine is the kingdom, Lord, .and thou art exalted as, 
head above all" (I Chron» 29:11). 

At the beginning of this assembly David said to the 
assembled ooirpany, "And of all w sons, (for the Lord 
hath given me many sons,) he hath chosen Solomon my 
son to sit upon the tlirone of the kingdom of the Lord 
over Israel" (I Chron. 28:5) • ^len later Solomon was 
enthroned- as king the sacred historian says, "And they 
made Solomon the son of David king the second time, 
and anointed him unto the Lord to be the chief governor 
(the Lord still being King), and Zadok to, be priest. 
Then Solomon sat on the thr*one of the Lord as. king in- 
stead of David his father, and prospered j and all 
Israel obeyed hiir." (I Chron. 29:22b, 23)* 

■ Vfe can plainly see froni the above that David regard- 
ed the throne as "the Lord»fe. Psalm 1|5:6 proves, the 
Lord's throne to be an eternal throne: "Thy thj^one, 
God, is for ever and ever," Jesus, even as David, only 
more so, ^ carried cut God^s will by His obedience "even 
unto death," and is therefore "highly exalted" (Phil, 
2:9)3 ^^d is set by God "at his otm right hand in the 
heavely places, far above all principality, and poorer, 
■ and might, ana doBixnion, and every name that is named, 
not only in this world, but in that which is to '. 
come" (Eph, 1:20b, 21), 

WTien the Scrip tui^es say Christ shall sit on David's 
tb-Tone, the meaning alnaj^s is that He sits upon the 
ti-irone of the Lord, Isa, 9:? and Luke 1:33 both state 
that it shall be an eternal kingdom j therefore the 
throne must be eternal, 

Peter says God's promise to DsCvid that He would seat 
one of his descendants upon his throne, was fu3.f illed 
in the resurrection and exaltation of Jesus. let he . 
says Jesus was exalted to 'the right hand of Godi prox^ing 
that David's throne' was a symbol of" the eternal, heav- 
erJ.y throne. So then Christ sits on the throne of the. 
Lord as David* s divine Son, not on David'.s literal 

•-. Sospel Herad, ' 1959 ' 



God is free. His will is sovereign* He created 
man in His omi image ^^ Consequently man is free to 
choose. To be created in the image of God implies 
freedom. Man can think. He can make choices and 
execute his decisions. Since he is free, he can be 
destructive or creative in his relationship to God. 
Man is the only one of God's creatures that has this 

On the destructive side man can refuse to reflect 
the image of God. He can distort this image by his 
sin. Free will implies the ability to sin. Man can 
refuse to do God>s will if and when he desires. He 
can place himself at the center of the universe in- \ 
stead of God* Out of fellowship with God. he can be 
creative in the direction of evil. 

On tha other hand, man can be creative through his 
response to God in obedience. He can interpret life 
in the Christian context and make creative living 
possible. Creative living is living dynamically with- 
in the context of the will of God. However, God wants 
man's decision to fellowship with Him to be freely made. 
Fellowship under compulsion is impossible. L'. Carapbell 
lAii'-ckoff in his book. The Task Of Christian Education, 

^*God is willing to run the risk that the children 
He loves and cares for may fall into error, make mis- 
takes, and fall into sin in order that they may have 
the quality within them that will allow them also to ■ 
respond to Km, to come to Him, and to receive from 
Him the care, the love and the guidance that He can 
give. If nmn were forced to come to God, the response 
could not be satisfactory to Him. The kind of follower 
God wants is the follower who comes to Him freely out 
of a full and complete love.— Selected 

Salida, California, November 5. 

•iBii'- - - '- -THE /.PILGRIM, 

.-_ : (Concluded)' ■ 
(Sondensed from the. lect-ores of C,G*: Finney^ 18'U8) .. 

CdtTGDUDraC REivlMlK:S. {Continued) 

I hare been, for some years, deeply impressed witli "bhe fact,- 
that so many professors of religion are coming- to the ripe con- 
viction' that they ncTer knew Christ • There have been in this 
place almost cpntimial developments of tliis fact; ?aid 1 doubt, . 
whether tliere "is a iiilriister in the land yio mil present Christ 
as the gospel presents him^ in all the fvilness of his official 
relations to nankind, -who mil not be struck and agonised mth 
developments that mil assure him, that the great rsass of pro*- 
fessors of religion do not knovr the Saviour* It has been to 
my mind a pairTful and serious question, v/hat' I ought to think ' 
of the spiritual state of those who kaow so. little of the bless- 
ed Jesus» l^hat: none of them have been converted, I dare not. 
say, iindyet, that they have heen converted, I am af^raid to say» 
I woxild not for the world "quench the smoking flasx, 'or break 
the bruised reed," or say .anything to st-umble, or weaken the 
feeblest lamb of Christ; and yet ,my. heart is sore- pained, my 
soul is sick; nry* bo^^els of compassion yearn over the church 
of the blessed Cod* 0, the dett,r church of Christ 5 Vvhat does 
she in her present state kno^ of the gospel— rest,: .of that "great 
and perfect peace" which they have whose minds are stayed on 
God? xhe church in this place is composed, to a gre at "^ extent," 
of professors of religion from different parts of the world, 
- -who have come hither for educational purposes, and .from relig- 
ious considerations* And as I said, I have aometimes been appal- 
led at the disclosures Tr^jhioh the Spirit of God has nade of the 
re'al spiritual state of many who have come here, and were con- 
sidered by others before they came, and by themselves, as truly 
converted to God» 

If I am not Mstaken, there is an extensive feeling among 
Christians and ministers, that much that ought to be knoTm 
and may be known of the Saviour, is not known* llany are beginii*- 
ing to find t.hat the Saviour is to them "as a root out of a dry 
ground, having neither form nor comeliness;" that the gospel 
t^fhich they preach or hear is not to them "the po7yer of'^God 'onto 
SalTaticn" from sin; that it is not. to them "glad. tidings of 
-.great Joy;" .that it is not to them a peace-giving gospel; and 
ma?i7 are feeling that if Christ has done for them all that his 
grace is able to do in this life, the plan" of salvation is sadly 
defective; that Christ is not -aXt'er ^all- a; Saviour -.suited to 
their necessities;, that religion, which they have is not 
suited to the world in ymlch they live; that it does not, cannot 
^Ke them free, but .leaves them in a state of perpetual bondage* 
Their souls are agonized, and tossed to and fro without a rest- 
ing place* Multitudes., also -are. beginning to see, that, there 
are many passages, both in the Old and the New Testament, v^ich 


they do not \mderstand; that the pronases seem to mean much more 
than they hare ever realized; and that the gospel and the plan 
#f^ salvation, as a whole, mast be something very different from 
that which they have as yet apprehended* There are^ if I mis*- . ■ 
take not, great multitudes all over the country, who are inqtii— 
ring more earnestly than ever before, after a knowledge of that 
Jesus who is to save his people from their sins« 

If the doctrine of these lectures is true, you see the limiense 
importance of preaching it clearly andfully, in revivals of re- 
ligion. "When the hearts of converts are warm with their first 
love, then is the time to make them fully acquainted with their 
Savioiir, to hold him up in all his offices and relations, so as 
to break the power of every sin— to lead them to break off fo3>- 
ever from all self— dependence, and to receive Christ as a present, 
perfect, everlasting Saviour, so far as this can possibly be 
done with their limited experience. ; • • • 

Unless this course be taken, their backsliding is inevitable. 
You m5,ght as vrell expect to roll back the waters of Niagara with 
your hand, as to stay the tide of their former habitudes of mind, 
surrounded as they are mth temptation, without a deep, and 
thorough, and experimental acquaintance with the Saviour. And 
if they are thrown upon their ovaa watchfulness and resources, for 
strength against temptation, instead of being directed to the 
Saviour, they are certain to become discouraged, and fall into ■ 
dismal bondage* 

But before I conclude these remarks, I mast not omit to notice 
the indispensable necessity ox a vdllingness "lio do the vdll of 
God, in order rightly to understand this doctrine. If a man is 
unwilling to give up his sins, to deny himself all ungodliness 
and every wordly lust, if he is unwilling to be set apart wholly 
and forever to the service of the Lord, he mil either reject •* 
this doctrine altogether, or only intellectually admit it, with- 
otit receiving it into his heart. It is an eminently dangerous 
state of mind to assent to this, or any other doctrine of the 
gospel, and not reduce it to practice. 

^l^ch evil has been done by those ^o have professedly embraced 
this doctrine in theoiy, and rejected it in practice. Their •. 
spirit and temper have been such as to lead those %Tho saw them 
to infer, that the tendency of the doctrine itself v^as bad. Ind 
it is not to be doubted that some who have professed to have ex^- 
perienced the power of this doctrine in their hearts, have greatly 
disgraced religion, by exhibiting a very different spirit from 
that of an entirely sanctified one. But 7/hy in a Christian land 
should this be a stumbling block? When the heathen see persons 
^^^J^^^^^^^."^^^^*"^^ *^ professedly adopt the Christian system, 
exhibit on their shores, and in their countries, the spirfc which 
m>ny of them do, they infer that this is the tendency of the 
Clristian religion. To this our missionaries reply, that thev 
a^e only nominal Christians, only speculative, not real believers. 

186 . THE . PILGRBl 

Should thousands of our oiiuro3i members g 9 among them, ,they 
-would have, the same reason to complain; and might reply to the - 
missionaries,^ these are not only nooiinal believers, but profes^ 
to. have experienced the ^Christian religion in their own hearts^ 
NoTf what' would -J; he mis si onaries reply? Vfoy, to be sure, that 
they were professors, of religion; but that they really did not 
kno^T Christ, thgtt they were deceiving themselves with a name to 
live, v^ilo in fact they were dead in trespasses and sins* 

it has often beexi a matter of astonishment to me, that in a 

Christian land, it should be a stumbling— block to any, tjiat some, 
or if you -please, a majority of those who profess to receiyeand 
to have experienced the truth of this doctrine, should exhibit 
.an xmohristian spirit • What if the same objection shotdd be 

.- brought against the Christian religion; against any and every 
doctrine of -the gospel, that the great majority of all the pro- 
fessed believors and receivers of those doctrines were proud, 
worldly, selfish, and exhibited anything but a right spirit? 
This objection mighty be made with truth to the professed Christ— 

' i ah" church » B^at would the conclusiveness of such an objection 
be'.adrritted, in, .Christian lands? V^o does not knoTT the ready 
answer to all such, objections §s these, that the doctrines of 
Chri s t i an i t y do h ot s ano t i on su oh c onduct , and that it i s , not 
the real belief of , them that begets any such spi^rit or conduct; 
that the Christisui reli^-ion abhors all these objectionable things « 
iind nmv, suppose it should be replied to this, that a tree is 
Imotvn by its fruits, and that so groat a majority of the pro- 
fessors of religion co^.ild not oxliibit such a spirit, unless it 
were the tendency of Christianity itself to. beget it» ^feo would 
not reply to this," is the natural state of man uiiiiiflucnaed oy 
the gospel of^ Christ; that, in these instances, on account of 
unb eli ef , t h e' go sp el has f ai 1 e d to c orr e ct -wliat ^^m s air e ady 
YJX'oxig^ ,and that it needed not the influenpe of any corrupt do.o— 
trine- to produce that state of mind? It appears to me, that 
these objectors against tnis doctrine, on account of the fact 

"that som<5 and perhaps maiy who have professed to receive it, 
have, exhibited, a wong, spirit, iakeit for granted that the 
doctrine produces this spirit, instead of considering that a 
wrong spirit is natural to men, and that the difficulty is 
, that through tfnbelief, the gospel has failed to crrect'^v^at -w^s 
before wrong* :::yhey reason as if they supposed the human heart 
needed, something to beget within it a bad spirit, and as if they 
.supposed,\that, a belief in .this doctrine- had made men moked ; 
instead of recognising the, fact, that they vmre before wicked, 

-and, that through -u^ibeiief the gospel has failed to make them 
holy. . ' 

-f^ "^^^^ f ^* ^^ ^f^ ^^ ^^P^^-^ood, that J suppose or admit, that 

the great mass who have professed to have received this doctx-ine 

■ S L! r^" ^^^r^^^^-^ave exMbited a bad spirit, I must say, that 

^^t'^+^^^f^^ I^am fully convinced, that if I have ever seen 
Chrxstxanxty and the spirit of Christ in the world, it has Len 


exhibited by those ^ as a general thing, who have professed to 
receive this doctrine into their heart* 

How amazingly important it is, that the ministry and the 
oh-urch should come fully to a right understanding and embracing 
of this doctrine, 0, it will be like life from the dead* The 
proclamation of it is now regarded hy multitudes as "good tidings 
of great joy*" From every quarter, we get the gladsome intelli- 
gence, that souls are entering into the deep rest and peace 
of the gospel, that they are awaking to a life of faith and love— 
and that, instead of sinldLng down, into antinomianism, they are 
eminently more benevolent, active, holy and useful than ever be- 
fore; that they are eminently?' more prayerful, watchful, diligent, 
meek, so ber^-minded, and heavely in all their lives. This is the 
character of tl'ose, to a yevy great extent, at least, vd-th whom 
I have been acquainted, who have embraced this dcjctrine, and 
professed to have experienced its power # I say this for no 
other reason, than to relieve the anxieties of those who have 
hea,rd very stran^^e reports, and Tiiose honest fears have been 
awakened in regard to the tendency" of this doctrine* 

>-?ach pains have been taken to demonstrate, that our views of 
this subject are wrong* But in all the arguing to this end hither- 
to, tliere has been one grand defect. None of the . opponents of' 
this doctrine ha%'e yet showed us "a more excellent 7/ay, and told 
us what is ri^^ht©" It is certainly inipossible to ascertain what 
is ?K*ong, on any moral suject. Unless we have before us the 
standard of right© The mind must certainly be acquainted mth 
the rule of right, before it can reasonably pronounce anything 
va-^ong; "for hy the law is the knowledge of sin.'' It is therefore 
certainly absurd, for the opponents of the doctrine of entire 
sanctifioation in this life, to pronounce this doctrine \Trong 
without being able to show us what is right* 

But before 1 dose my remarks upon this subject, I miTSt not 
fail to state \rhat I regard as the present duty of Christians • 
It is to hold their vali in a state of consecration to God, and 
to lay hold on the promises for the blessing promised- in such 
passages as I Thess, v«23,24; — "i\nd the very God of peace sanc- 
tify you^vjholly, and I pray God " axid I pray God your 
whole spirit, and so^ol, and body, be preserved blameless unto 
the coBlng of our Lord Jesus Christ; faithful is he that calleth 
you, ifiho also I'dll do it," This is present dutyp ■ Let them wait 
on the Lord in faith, for that cleansing of the whole being 
which they need, to confirm, strengthen, settle them. All 'they 
can do, and all that God requires them to do, is to obey him 
from moment to mom.ent, and to lay hold of him for the blessing 
of ^ which we have been speaking; and to be assured, that God will 
bring ?:orth the answer in the best time and in the best manner. 
If you believe, the anointing that abideth will surely be secured 
m due time, "^ 

The End, 




. Trajan . The celebrated epistle of Pliny to Trajan 
was m-itten ten or twelx'^e years afterwards, and proyes 
that the Christians in Bithjmia (and probably in every 
province of the east were subjected to many vexations 
,and sufferings* The emperor's answer amounted to this— 
'that the Chiristians are not to be sought for, nor mol- 
ested on annonymous information^ but that on conviction 
they ought to be punished. ' From a comparison of these 
two documents, we collect first, that the spirit of 
persecution in this instance originated rather in their 
heathen fellow-subjects thcin in the character of the 
emperor I and secondly,-,- that tiie laws by which they were 
punished were not any recent edicts issued by an express 
act of legislation against Christians, but the original 
statutes ox the republic continued and applied to them't 
The object of Trajan, in this rescript, was their miti- 
gation; it is probable that he knew little respecting 
the natorve and evidence oi the new religion, but was 
des:lr*ous somewhat to. soften the practical intollerance 
of his owi 5 but the effect was not in the end f avora:ble 
to the Giiristians, since it gave a saiiction to legal 
persecution, and established on J-dgh authority the fatal 
ma&:in, that the mere profession of Christianity was a 
crirainal offence. 

The truth of the first of the above conclusJ,ons ia 
confirmed by the annals of succeeding reigns. About 
the year 120, Serenius Granianus, Procounsul' of Asia, 
wrote to Adrian, ^that it seemed to him unreasonable 
• that Christians should be put to death merely to gi-at- 
ify the clamors of the people, without tribal and with- 
out any crim.e proved against them, ' And there is a re- 
script of the emperor, aadressed to Minucius Fundanua,, 
in which this letter is noticed, and in vjhich it is en- 
joined that Christians should not be sacrificed to the 
CLAiylORS of the multitude. 


During the long reign of Antoninus Pius (from I38 
to 161 A.D.O, no deliberate injuries were inflicted 
upon the Chris tiansj and it appears that they suffered 
much more from the violence of popular tumult than from 
the operation of the ancient laws. It became common 
about this time to attribute national calamities of 
every description to the contempt of the national re- 
ligion e:5diibited by the Christians. 'If the Tiber has 
overflowed; if heaven has refused its rainj if the earth 
has been shaken; if famine or plague has spread its 
ravages, the cry is immediately raised— Away with the , 
Christians to the lions,* The emperor, influenced, as 
some have supposed, by the Apologies of Justin l^iartyr, 
published one, possibly two, edicts for their protection 
against such outrage; and during^ this reign especially, 
they grew and extended in dignity as well as number, 
and becarae more generally known by ir^itings not deyoid 
of energy and eloquence, Pius was succeeded by Marcus, 
of whom Gibbon has said, that ^during the whole coirrse 
of his reign he despised the Christians as a philosopher, 

Marcus Antonnus , It seems singular, that a historian, 
who malves great profession of candor and universal hu- 
manity, should almost have excepted from the number of 
persecutors the only name (as far at least as this part 
of our inquiry) to "v/nich that ignominious designation 
appears justly and certainly to belong: for under all 
the preceeding emperors, the injuries inflicted upon 
the Christians had either been occasional, as arising 
from some casual circumstance, or staining only a por- 
tion of their reign; or partial, as confined to a few 
provinces, or perhaps cities of the eipire* Moreover, 
they had been sometimes excited, and generally encouraged, 
by popular irritation; they had been directed against 
a small and obscure and calumniated sect, through the 
operation, and according to the seeming intention, of 
the ancient statutes. And the efforts of individual 
emperors were, for the most part, turned rather to the 
suspension or mitigation of those statutes than to the 
rigid enforcement of them. In addition to this, let 
us not forget, that those individuals possessed little 


pieans or opportunity to inform themselves respecting 
the peculiar principles, doctrines, or habits of ' 
Christians; still less to examine the foundation of ■ - 
their belief, or even to iinderstand that- it had any " 
foundation: — if they perrnitted the work of 'destruction ; 
to proceed, it was in ignorance and blindness. On the-^ 
other hand, Marcus Antoninus undertook the task of ''; 
*p-anishment' or persecution among the earliest of" his 
imperial duties, and he continued to fulfil it vjith un- 
remitting diligence throughout the nineteen jrears of 
his splendid administration. He acted on deliberate 
principles, and his principles were not of par-tial or 
local operation, but were equally applicable to every; 
province of his empire* And thus he every where enforc- 
ed the laws in their full severity; the lives and the 
l^roperty of the convicted were forfeited by the most 
oumiiiary process of justice; qnd the search which was '• 
made after one suspected, and which the uninformed hu-^ 
manity of Trajan had so nobly discouraged, sufficiently 
proves the activity of the pursuit, and the earnestness 
of the pursuer. But the most important point of distinc- 
tion is probably this: Marcus Antoninus knew much better 
the nature of the evil which he was committing: he- was 
acquainted, to a certain extent at least, the opin- 
ions of the Cm^istians, and the innocence of their 
character; and it is not likely that he had entirely ' 
neglected to exaroine the grounds of their faith. He -'• 
watched the process of his own inflictions, and x-v^hen 
he perceived the fortitude mth which all endured, and 
the eagerness with :-iiich many courted them,-' he coldly^ ' 
reporved the unphilosopiiic enthusiasm of the Martyrs, 
And yet, perhaps, his ovjn philosophy was not quite de-' 
void of enthusiasm, or, a.t least, it was not strictly ^ 
regulated by reason, men it led him to labor for the- 
destruction of the most moral .:ind loyal portion of his' 
subjects, only because they disclaimed the very super- 
stitions which he place his pride in despising, 

— Waddington's- History of the Church, - 



It is one thing to read the Bible throiigh» 

Another thing to read to learn to do. 

Some read it -with design to learn to read. 

But to the subject pay but little heed* 

Some read it as their duty once a week. 

But no instruction from the Bible seek; 

1/Vhile others read it ivith but little care, 

7?ith no regard to how they read, nor where. 

Some read it as a history, to know 

How people lived three thousand years ago« 

Some read to bring themselves into repute. 

By showing others how they can dispute; 

Miile others read because their neighbors do. 

To see how long 'twill take to read it through. ' 

Some read it for the wonders that are there, — 

How David killed a lion and a bear; 

"vihile others read it %vith TUicoinnon care. 

Hoping to find some contradictions there I -■ 

Some read as though it did not speak to them. 

But to the pe'ople at Jerusalem. * . • , 

One reads it as a book of mysteries, • .. 

And won't believe the very thing he sees. ; 

One reads '.'dth father's specks upon his head, ' 

And sees the thing just as his father said. 

Some read to prove a pre-adpptcd creed, -^ 

Kence understand but little that they read; 

For every passage in the book they bend. 

To make it suit that all-important end I 

Some people read, as I have often thought. 

To teach the book instead of being taught. 

ilnd some there are who read it out of spite — 

I fear there are but few v?ho read it right. 

So many people in these latter days, . , 

Have read the Bible in so many v/ays 

That few can tell which system is the best. 

For every party oonti*adiots the rest J 

But read it prayerfully, and you will see. 

Although men contradict, God's words agree. 

For what the early Bible prophets wrote. 

We find that Christ and his apostles quote; 

So trust no creed that trembles to recall 

Yfliat has been penned by one and verified by all. 

—Author lAiknown 


X-.:. -•., BIBLE '.STUDY. .': '. ' 

-■■■ -■! PETER— ■ ■;■''..- , ■ : ::: 

The First. %istle General -of Peter was written 
by St» Petei' about* 6UA*D. Tt is addre'sseci to .^the 
strangers scattered abroad throughout Pontus>. rGal- 
atia, Cappadocia^- Asia, and Bithynia , ■ Which ' 
probably refers to the Christians that' fled to 
the above- countries because' of Nero's persecution* 

The theme of the letter : seems to be one of '^n- 
couragment and Comfort duri|ig this pez^iod of great 
tribulation .and' persecution"^, " • 

Tliroughout Peter's epistle there are many wonder- 
ful instructions for 'daily "life. Some of these arej 
Abstain from- the lusts. of /the flesh* Be submissive 
to every ordinance" of man". Iioncur^ all men* .-Love 
the Brotherhood, Fear' God ♦ (chap.' ■2:13-17, Be 
humble_, sober -and vigilant^.. Casting all your 
care upon him| .for, he .care'thfor you, (chap, 5:7) ♦ 

Fill in the mis sing words: ■ • •, ■/• 

For ye were as --^ going astrayj but are now 
returned.^yntb.the '-.^ -• • and _^.of yom* 

Philip Chambers' 
Modesto^ California 


VOL. 7 OCTOBER, I96O NO. 10 

"Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain 
from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul.*' 1 Peter 2:11 


¥e tremble in the struggle. 

And often by the way 
We cast Q-ar anxious glances 

Across the passing day. 
It may be truth has fallen, 

While i^ong stands in its might; 
The struggle waits unsettled 

Until it's settled right. 

ItLngdoms and empires perish. 

But truth lives on and still 
It molds the passing ages 

As by an iron will. 
And when at last the reckoning 

Appears in judgment light. 
The things f oreyer settled 

Will all be settled right, 

Man in his haste proposes, 

But higher than the stars. 
The Hand that holds all destinies 

Its purpose never mars. 
Then perish every fancy 

With all that hates the light j 
There's nothing ever settled 

'until it»s settled right. 

--Selected by Sylvia M Wolf 

THE PILGRIM is a religious magazine published monthly by Daniel F. Wolf In the 
interests of the members of The Old Brethren Church. Subscription rate: $1.50 per year. 
Sample copies sent free on request. Address: THE PILGRIM, Rt. 3, Box 1378, ModestO/ CaKf. 


It might be usefiil at this point to define more 
clearly the difference between the two kinds of church 
counsel or council meetings under discussion in this 

The first is the simple conference type of meeting^ 
where brethren counsel together in love, \fith a mutual 
desire to obtain all possible erJ.ightment and experience 
upon any problem at hand; willingly obeying all reveal- 
ed truth and Christian duty» This type of meeting does 
not exceed the local chm-'ch level in organisation and 
authority. By association and mutual counsel, there 
can be more more enlightment and greater unity of 
action in a common causey but it has no offices of it's 
ovm, and no ''higher" authority than what exists in the 
local congregations with their overseers. 

The other is the REPRESENTATIVE COUNCIL system^ 
similar in pattern to our national government, where 
representatives of local congregations convene in an 
extra-organisational manner, and in the name of the 
brotherhood hear questions and make decisions for and 
affecting the whole brotherhood* And have autiaority 
to appoint executive committees, and in tiir'n delgate 
to them powei-s to enforce those decisions, and their 
judgments upon local congregations and individuals 
who may not have concurred or be in agreement with 
such decisions. These executive committees are offices 
and officers of the meeting itself, claiming "higher" 
authority than what exists in any local church. Thus, 
this system recognises a brotherhood headship ox" 
FEDERAL AUTHORITY in the church. 

,In it*s humble beginnings, this latter kind of 
church council appears to be the same as the other, 
but it never remains so, as the history of "Councils" 
in the primitive church, and Annual Meetings in the 
Brethren church abundantly shows. 


Although there are infereriGes in the minutes of the 
Brethren *s Annual Meetings as early as 1805 that there 
was "higher" authority in their "Big learly Meetings"^ 
yet their was no hint^ before lQk9y of any represent- 
ative brotherhood or federal body to enforce it^s 
"Conclusions , " But there is much evidence to show, 
that, prior to that time, such responsibility resided 
in the local congregations with their overseers. 

Thus, the kind of Annual Meeting which Brother 
Kurtz describes as in use among the Brethren for nearly 
one hundred years (from about 17$0 to around 18^0), 
while it had some patterns of the latter type, was 
substantially the conference type of meeting, 


According to the testimony of Elder Kurtz, Brethren's 
Encyclopedia, page 11, the first change consisted , only 
in having "five, seven or more of the oldest ministers.*? 
to \]ithdraw to a private place, after the meeting was 
opened, to receive the business for the meeting, in- 
stead of receiving it openly before the whole assembly , 
as was done at. first. This was because "improper 
questions were sometimes asked" before the public, 
"Some few of these questions," he says, "were answered 
privately, others were answered by letter to the church 
concerned, and only questions of general interest were 
reserved for public discussion," This comiiiittee -i-Aiich 
was appointed to receive the business was nominated by 
the elder in x-jhose district the meeting was held by 
"simply stepping up to the ministers* table, and with 
the sweep of his hand pointed out . those seated behind 
the table as his and the churches choice, without 
naming them, and told them to follow him to a private 
place, etc," He says this custom seems to' have given 
general satisfaction to the church for a great nmaber 
of years, even up to I83O and I63I5 the first two 
Annual Meetings of the Brethren he ever attended* 

For a period of nearly fifty years, from I8I3 to 
i860 (which includes the time of which Elder Kurts 
wrote), more than twenty queries were sent to Annual 


Meeting lArith various proposals regarding the conduct 
and authority of the Anaual Meeting j some asking for 
drastic changes in it^s organisation, and others urging 
a return to former usages. But in them the two philo- 
sophies that began to emerge in the brotherhood regard- 
ing the purpose and utility of the Annual Meeting are 
clearly discernablej competing for acceptance in a 
relatively new Christian society. Space does not permit 
including all of them here, but the following selection^ 
in whole or in part, will present a good cross-section 
of those different views, and the brotherhood's uncer- 
tainty of which of the two systems to adopt: 

18)47^ Art. 1 It was "Concluled" that the council 
should "consist of delegates^ not more than two to be 
sent from each chirrch, with a written certificate, 
containing also the queries to be presented to the 
Yearly Meeting o The delegates to constitute a committee 
of the whole to receive and examine all matters commim- 
icated to the I., Me, and to arrange all the queries and 
questions for public discussion, and after they are 
publicly discussed, and the general sentiment heard, 
then the delegates ax'e to decide, and if two-thirds or 
more of the delegates agree, let their decision then 
be final. But if the nature of the case be such that 
two-thirds do not give their consent, then let it be 
delayed (postponed) until it receives the voice of at 
least two-thirds of the legal delegates, etc," 

The next year, l81i8^ before this "Conclusion" of the 
previous year could be put into effect, it was abandoned, 
because of "twelve letters from all parts of the chui'ch, 
ccrtaining chiefly remonstrances against said plan." 
see also l850j Art. 32* 

18^1, Art. 1 Request was made to select Standing 
Comirdttee by ballot. Ans. "Considered, unanimously, 
to make no change in this matter from the ancient and 
present usage, viz., thgt the elders of the church where 
the Yearly Meeting is held, shoiild have the privilege ' 
as heretofore, to nominate said committee," 

In 18^7^ Art, 2I4., a plan was proposed, but rejected, 
to have the delegates consist of one deacon or lay member 
and one minister from each chiu:*ch, "And thus relieve 


the ministry from the responsible position of being 
the exclusive advisers of the chirrches," 


"Let us recapitulate the history of our Annual Meet- 
ings as contained in the extracts of minutes given 
above. In 1813- the Brethren declared to continue in 
the order heretofore .declared and laid down by the old 
brethren (that lived before them) . . In 1832 was the 
last meeting according to the old ordei*,- and there it was 
was concluded to change the time, commencing on Pente- 
cost with worship, and to have Monday and Tuesday for 

Already in I836 again another change was proposed ; 
but not granted. In 1837 the time was changed back 
again to Friday and Satiorday for council* In I8I4.7, 
l8Ii8, 18^0, 1851^ 1853^ etc., changes were again. pro- 
posed, as the careful reader himself may readily 
understand. But to what conclusion will he corae after 
reading it over again? Does it not seem as if in this 
matter our ship had lost it's chart and corrrpass,' and 
no one Imew rightly which way to steer? Or is it not-'-- 
as if a person in the wilderness loses his X'^ray, the • -. 
main road, the beaten track, after night, and f inas 
himself in the woods, or in the open prairie, and in 
the moon or starlight, or even without it, left to his 
ojn reason -and resources, he feels and knox-js he has 
lost his way, but at first thinks he will soon right 
himself; he tries one direction, and after awhile turns 
around and tries another course, and thus goES on until 
at last he becomes completely bewildered and exhausted, 
not knowing what to do. Well we think the best thing 
he can do is to sit still, and xmit till God send him 
a guide or daylight. Brethren, let us do so too, and 
pray God for guidance and light, and if we ask in faith 
he will grant it in due time," 

It will be seen from the comments of Elder Kurts, \ 
and the many requests for changes in the manner of con- 
ducting Annual Meeting, that from about the middle of 
the 1830*3 and on, there was much imrest and confusion 


in the brotherhood about their Annual Meeting e Brother 
Kurt2 seems to see the greatest departxire from the 
>^ancient order" in changing the time and adding another 
day. But we believe ^ at this distance^ with a much 
more completed record than what he could have (because 
he did not live to see it completed)^ that a far great- 
er and more significant change was taking place than 
what he^ and perhaps many other sincere brethren^^ real- 
ised. The brotherhood was expanding rapidly in terri- 
tory and numbers, and with it, also^ it»s organisation 
and government was undergoing a major change— slowly 
at first in the l830»s and UO^s, but with increased 
accelleration from lQk9 to I88I. It was a change from 
a fraternal association of local church congregations 
to a representative federal organization and headship, 
with it's oxm executive coimnittees to carry out it's 

The following extracts and observations from the 
minutes of that time will show the progress and develop- 
ment of this new centralized brotherhood system: 

Brother Kurtz says, "In I632 was the last meeting 
according to the old order," Prior to 1837 the minutes 
simply show the questions and answers considered in the 
meeting. There is no announcement of organization, no 
names of "receiving" or "standing committee," and no 
signatures to the minutes* 

In 1837 the minutes were signed for the first time— 

"By the elders present," 
I8I4U* First mention of a "Committee" being chosen 
to receive the business. 
Minutes signed by "The Gommdttee," 
181|7. First time an- Annual Meeting office is recog- 
nized — "Clerk of Yearly Meetings" 
The introduction to, the minutes of 1848' seems to 
show that the general brotherhood was slow in adopt- 
ing the- Annual Meeting system, for it says, "and 
■ -though as fully represented as eve r before , it is 
believed that only about one -third of the churches 
had sent messengers," 

IdSO* If/rong for brethren in different arms of the 
church to go against the counsel of A.K* 


1851. "Three committees appointed by the « General 

Coimnittee . " 
18^3 • First mention of a "Standing Committee." 

1856 • District Meetings formed, 

1851;- Minutes signed "in behalf of tlie meeting and 

the Standing Committee." 
1855 • Minutes signed only "in behalf of Standing 

Committee , " 
1857* Mention is made of Standing Committee 

"receiving the delegates," "Moderator" used 

for first time, • 

1858, "appointed Standing Committee and « Secretaries." 
i860, "Annual Meeting decisions obligatory until 

repealed by same authority." 

1862. "No query of importance, acted on by a * sub- 
district meeting^ should be confirmed until 
presented to the AJ4. for it's sanction," 

1863. Standing Committee to open all queries and 
sort them, 

l86ii. District i^feeting to keep no record of it's 

proceedings except what is to be subiriitted to 
Anmial Meeting. Art. lU prohibits any one 
from making a minute of District Meeting for 
their ovm use, Ai*t. 22 shows that A.iio 
decisions are not obeyed by all overseers of 
the chxirches— povrers given to cite them to 
Standing Committee, 

1866. Considered it virong for an elder and majority 
of a church to reject the decision of a Com- 
mittee sent by Annual Meeting, 

1867, Art, 19 An A*M, committee's decision in a 
local church shall be final. 

In 1868 a number of elders, alarmed by the growth 
of this new power in the chiu'ch, met and formuH.ated a 
petition to the imnual Meeting of I8695 solemning pro-* 
testing it's methods, and asking that it "fall back upon 
her ancient order of doing business, etc, . , so that 
in the future oior Annual Conference Meetings be conduct- 
ed more in SE^iPLICrTX and after the manner of our first 
brethren^ , , (Continued on page XOk) 


NO. 2 
J. I. Cover 

llan was not created having eternal life within him- 
self | only God has iimnortality at the present time. 
I Tim. 6:16, 

All the good gifts bestowed upon man does not belong 
to him (James 1:1?) and can be recalled or t§ken away« 
Even the soul of man can be destroyed by God the Creator* 
Matt. 10:25^ Jas. U:12. 

We are accountable how we hear-, Mark U:2U, 2$^ and 
how we use our talents as Jesus says, "Take therefore 
the talent from him, and give iu unto him that hath ten 
talents J For unto everyone that hath shall be given and 
he shall have abundance: but from him that hath not 
shall be taicen away even that he hath«" Matt* 25:26,29* 

Jesus -ai£i.kes a separation in EVERYONE THAT HATH and 
HIM TH/iT HATH NOT! We are so happy with the prospect 
that Jesus will take away the evil completely out of 
the lives of all chjristians in this final separ*ating 
work that will be complete aiid final to the joy of all 
the redeemed to be entirely free from sin. 

The momentous condition confronting all those VJIiO 
HAVE NOT, we believe the Holy Spirit, — "FROM HBi THAT 
know a separation is referx^ed to here« Jesus says, 
'^Either mal<:e the tree good and his fruit good; or else 
make the tree corrupt; and his fruit corrupt; for the 
tree is. known by his fruit e" Matt. 12:33* It appeal's 
from Jesus' teaching that a complete separation takes 
place between the evil and the good* 

We know no sin, no evil can enoer heaven, Rev^ 21:27» 
and when the King says "Come ye blessed of my Father" 
those happy redeemed children go to the realms of light 
and gooaness in the presence of God. 

When the King says, "Depart from me ye cursed into ' 
everlasting fire prepax^ed for the devil and his aigels;" 
the 'company of the evil-doers of all ages retreat from 
the presence of the' King of glory, to the place of des- 


truction and corruption, "where they shall utterly per- 
ish in their own corruption*" 2 Peter 2:12. I have 
never read in the word of God of any evil in the New 
Jerusalem. I have never read of any good person or 
thing in hell number two— the second death. The word 
of God is plain. Rev, 21:3, that only the wicked, who 
have -become coiTipletely CGRiiUPT TREnS, meet the fate John 
the Baptist pronounced, Ma»tt. 3slOt 

Everyone in this life has some good qualities and 
gifts,— would to God, mankind would prize the good trea- 
sures entrusted to them, using all the good, and oior 
very lives to the glory of our Creator, who can take 
away as well as give. 

Let us all seriously consider the possibility of 
loosing all the evils of sin and teiaptation, aid to ex- 
pand and grow to perfection in the fair climes of heavenj 
or the possibility of loosing all the good, and have 
only the evil left— a corrupt tree cast in the cesspool 

of corruption, there to perish— The Second Death— the 
complete'" separation, 

'To leave all sin forever more. 

And stand upon the shining shore j 
To be forever with the good. 

To feed and grow on Aiigels food. 

To grow in love, aid bliss and grace. 
In that most glorious resting place; 

No sin, no tempter there to mar. 
The bliss of that celestial star. 

To leave the goodi oh no, oh noi 
To dwell in place of sin and T.-roe; 

Apart from God, apart from, good. 
To feed on sin the'. devils' food, • 

To dwell among that evil thong. 

So fiiLl of hate, and crime and wrong | 

For as we live and measxire mete, 
God^s separation is complete, 


Salida communion date, November 5. 


D. A, Skiles 

For near 2,000 years from the Beginning, we see noth- 
ing of Kings and Kingdoms, But many and various have 
been the Kings and Kingdoms since the time of Abraham 
till now, and will be through future years until Christ 
will set up His kingdom over all the earth* Earthly 
kings both good and evil have had, and are having their 
part in human history^ and. the earth now is grouped 
into many kingdoms, be they ruled by Kings, Presidents, 
Dictators, Pi^emj-ers, or Popes* 

' In the great Book of Life we find that God has or- 
dained and authorized two forms of govei^mnent or king- 
doms, lower and higher, lesser and greater, the civil 
governjiient of the earth, (The Powers that be) and the 
Kingdom of Heaven, of Clirist, or of God» The former 
set forth in Romans 13 5. X'^xhich is vested even with the 
power of the sword to subdue evil, and it is enjoined 
upon the subjects of the Kingdom of Heaven to be subject, 
obey and pray for these earthly powers, so long as their * 
laws and requirements do not demand violation of the 
higher laws of the kingdom of Christ, in which case 
Peter and the other apostles, Acts 5-29 said, "¥e ought 
to obey God rather than men©'* Otherwise it is written 
in Romans 13-2, "VJhosoever therefore resisteth the power, 
resiseth the ordinance of God; and they that resist 
shall receive to themselves damnation/^ 

The higher kingdom, or kingdom of heaven, Christ, 
and of God vjas first instituted i^iien Jesus made his 
appearance upon the earthly scene, and the forerunner 
John proclaimed, "Behold the kingdom of heaven is at 
hand," and ir? the near finishing of his work on earth 
we see the great transition from the power of the 
literal sword, to the power of the spiritual sword ♦ In 
Lul^e 22:36, Jesus told his desciples, "He that hath no 
swora, let him sell his garment, and buy one" and in 
verse 38 they said, "Here are two swords. And he said 
unto them, it is enough «" Two swords enough to meet 
such a multitude of his enemy captors? Yes, one was 


enough to sever the ear of the servant of the high ' 
priest "Which was imperative, so that Jesus could then 
and there institute the new and living way which was 
to Characterize forever the kingdom of heaven and God. 
Put up the sword into the sheath^ for it is no more 
needed in the kingdom of heaven, but the sword of the 
Spirit is now the christians armor. 

Here the mystery that had been hid from ages and 
generations was now revealed to the sons of mexiy as 
also Jesus revealed the manner of our induction of initi- 
ation into the kingdom of God, *^Ie must be born again," 
"Except a man be born of water and of the spirit, he 
can not enter the kingdom of God," 

It has been said that the kingdom of heaven, and the 
kingdom of God are not one and the same, should this 
be so, it is very evident tha t they are so interrelated 
that it would be hard, if not impossible, to draw a 
definite line of deraarkation between them, Jesus said, 
"My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were 
of this vjorld, then would my servants fight, that I 
should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my king- 
dom not from hence." 

We are now nearing the time of election of a new 
leader of the government, and it can be expected that 
the citizens of the government vxill look upon it as 
unwise to neg^lect to take part in electing the presi- 
dent, but they would also consider it unwise in case 
of war not to support tiiose whoiri we helped to elect, 
which would be contradictory to the laws of the king- 
dom of Christ, Moreover as we are commanded to pray 
for and honor the ruler, and appreciate the present 
liberties we enjoy, no doubt we can do much more for 
them on our knees in prayer to God, irjho over -rules in 
the kingdoms of men, and seteth up whomsoever he will, 
than by; casting one lone, vote in the ballot box, 

"Vfnerefore we receiving a ld.ngdom whiclx cannpt be 
moved, let us have grace, whereby we may serve God 
acceptably with reverence and godly fear," Heb, 12:28, 
Aside from the two kingdoms, that of heaven, and that 
of the earthly powers That Be, there is still another 
that wields extensive power over mankind, "The kingdom 

^Oli. ''"l THE PILGRBl 

of Satan," The prince and power of the air who is 
spreading his wings over the popular medium of tele- 
vision and otherwise^ but his kingdom is so transitory, 
and is. destined for the wrathful judgment of Almighty 
God/ and the firey pits of hell, and the warning is, 
^^Come out of her my people that ye be not partakers of 
her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues*" 

How often do we pray "Thy kingdom come" which can 
have a twofold application* Jesus said of his subjects, 
"Behold the kingdom of God is within you, no more stran- 
gers and foreigners but fellow citizens of the kingdom 
of the saints, and the household of God* And then ere 
long Christ will establish His millennial kingdom over 
all the earth* So may his kingdom come. 

Let thy kingdom blessed SavioiU", 

Come and bid our jarings cease. 

Come, oh come, and reign forever, 

God of love and Prince of Deacei, • 

— Piossville , In±i.ana 

ANMUAL METim (Continued from page 199) 

Among other things it asked that the designation of 
"Standing Coramittee" be discontinued, and that the 
Annual Meeting "desist" from sending committees into 
lo^al churches where "difficulties" exist. It conclud- 
ed by warning that if the Annual Meeting failed to 
grajit their petition, it was very probable that many 
chui''ches would not represent at the next Annual Confer- 
ence, Old Minute Book, Appendix pages ll|,l5# 

The concern of these petitioners can be better under- 
stood when the fact is considered, as shown by the 
Mnutes, that from 18U9, when the first A^Ma committee 
was sent to a local church, to 1881 (a period of 32 
years), some two hundred A,M, committees had been sent 
into around one hundred and eighty churches to "settle 
their difficulties," Miat difficulties? It is obvious 
that a large percentage of them were related to the 
question of the authority of the Annual Meejjlng and its 
policies, --D,F,W. Next: ANiWAL METING AUTHORITY 




Martin Luther • - * ■ .-i 

This Epistle is in truth the principal part of the 
New Testament and the very purest Gospel. It fully 
deserves that every Christian should know it by heart, .. 
word for word, and shcijld feed upon it every day, as 
daily bread for his soul. It cannot be read too often 
nor too deeply pondered, and the more it is studied 
the more precious and sweet to the taste does it become. 

Therefore will I also do my part, with all the power 
that God has given me, to prepare the vj-ay by this little 
Preface, so that everyone may come to a right under- 
standing of this Epistle, For it has hitherto been 
miserably obscured by glosses and all manner of idle 
talk, although it is in itself a shining light, alxaost 
sufficient to illuminate every part of the Holy Scrip- 

In the fii^st place, we must leaini to understand the - 
lanpuage which is here used, and must know what St, 
PaixL means by the vrords Law, Sin, Grace,- Faith, Right- 
eousness, Flesh, Spirit, and the like. Otherwise., all. 
cur reading of the Epistle will be in vain. 

The little word, liiW, is not to -be understood here 
in the ordinary sense, as teaching what things are to 
be done and what things ax^e not to be dene, as in the 
case of h^oman lax-/s, whose demaids are met by outward 
worksj with t^ ich the heart may have nothing to do, 
God judges according to the depths of the heai-^t. His 
law, therefore, requires the whole heart, and is not 
satisfied with outward works, but, on the contrary, 
condeLons as h^-pocrisy and lies the works which are done 
without the whole heart. Therefore*, all men are called 
liars (Ps, ll6:ll), because no one keeps the law^ of God, 
or can keep it, with the whole heai^tj for everyone finds 
in himself an aversion to that which is good, and an 
inclination toward that which is evil. Now where there 
is no free inclination toward that which is good, there 
the heart is not fully devoted to the lax-J of Cjod, and 


there also are certainly to be found sin and an incxrr- 
ring of the wrath of God, even though there may be out- 
wardly the appearance of many good works and an honor- 
able life, • • • 

For although thou dost outwardly keep the Iqm by ^ 
thy works from f eai^ of piaiishment or love or reward, 
yet thou do est it all without free inclination toward 
the law or love for it, but with aversion and /under 
constraint and wouldst rather do otherwise if it were 
not for the law* It follows from this that thou art 
at heart an enemy of the law, l^^ihat does it profit, 
then, that thou teachest others not to steal wiiilst 
thou art thyself at heart a thief, and wouldst gladly 
be one outwai'^dly if thou wast not afraid?— although 
even the outward works are not commonly performed for 
any length of time by such hypocrites. Thus thou teach- 
est others, but not thyself # Thou dost not even thy- 
self know what thou teachest, and hast never yet rightly 
understood the law. Yea, further— the law but increases 
sin, as the apostle says in chapter five (v, 20), be- 
cause a man but grows, the more hostile to the law the 
more it requires of him that which he cannot perform. 

Therefore St, Pa-ul says, in "the seventh chapter 
(7:lii), that the law is spiritual. What does this mean? 
If the lax^r is carnel (bodily), it could be satisfied 
with works. But now, since it Is spiritual, no one can 
meet its requirements, unless everything \ih±ch he does 
proceeds from the depths of his heart. But such a 
heart can no one give but the Spirit of God, who con- 
forms man to the law, so that he becomes cordially in- 
clined toward the law, and thenceforth does all things, 
not from fear or comp-ulsion, but with a willing heart* 
It is thus that the law is spiritual, because it must 
be loved and obeyed by such a spiritual heart and de- 
mands such a spirit. "Where this spirit does not dwell 
in the heart, there remains sin, mth aversion and 
hostility toward the law, although the law is good and 
just and holy. 

Accustom thyself, therefore^ to the thought, that 
it is one thing to do the works of the law, and a very 
different thing to fulfill the law. The works of the 


law consist in everything which man does^ or can clo^ in 
conformity to the law by his free will and his own stre- 
ngth. But since^ along with and beneath such works, 
there remain in the heart aversion to the law and only 
a compulsory submission to it^ such works are all of 
no avail nor benefit. This is what wSt, Paul means when 
he says, in chapter 3> verse 20 j "By the works of the 
law no man becomes righteous before God,^' 

Thou seest from this that the Scholastics and Sophists 
are deceivers, when they teach men that they can by 
works prepare themselves for grace. How can he by works 
prepare himself for that Miich is good, who performs no 
good X'vrork X'jithout urivjillingness and aversion in his 
heart? How can the vrork which proceeds from, axi unwill- 
ing and rebellious heai^t be pleasing to God? 

But to fulfill the law is to do wth willingness and 
love the works "which the law requires, and freely and 
without constr-aint of the law to lead an upright ana 
godly life, as if there were no law and no penalty for 
disobedience. But such a willingness aiid free love for 
the law is bestowed upon the heart by the Holy Spirit, 
as the apostle says in the fifth chapter (v, i))f But 
the Spirit is noG given, as he declares in tlie introduc- 
tion ^o the Epistle, except in,, and through faith, 
in Jesus Christ, So likewise faith cometh not, except ■ 
only tlirough tlie Word of God, or the Gospel, which 
preaches Christ, teaching that He is the Son of God and 
Son of Man, slain and risen from the dead for omv sakes. 
This is declaimed in chapter 3> verse 25: "teiom God 
hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his 
blood J " in chapter U, verse 2^: '^VJho was delivered for 
our offences, an.d rai-sed again for our justificationj'' 
and in chapter 10, verse 9- "And that if thou sh alt con- 
yfess vath thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe 
in thine heart that God hath raised him from .the dead, 
thoTL shalt be saved," 

Hence it is that faith alone malces righteous (justi- 
fies) and fulfills the law, for it brings the Spirit 
through the merits of Christ, But the Spirit mokes the 
heart free and willing, as the law requires; and then 
good works proceed of themselves from faith. This is 


what he means in chapter three, where^ after having 
entirely rejected the works of the law, it sotmds as 
though he wotild abolish the law itself through faith* 
No, says he (v. 31), we establish the law through faithj 
that is, we fulfill it through faith, . * * 

■ FAITH is not the human fancy and dream which some 
people mistalce for faith* Vftien such persons, see that 
no amendment of the life and no good works follow, al- 
though they may hear and talk much about faith, they 
fall into error and declare that faith is not enough, 
but we must perform good works if we would be pious 
and attain salvation* In consequence of this, when 
they hear the Gospel, they fall to work and frame for 
themselves by their own powers a notion in their hearts 
idaich says, I believe* This they then consider true 
faith.. But ais it is a human invention and notion, of 
which the heart in its depths finds out nothing, it 
accomplishes also nothing and no amendment of the life 

But faith is a divine work in, us, vhich transforms 
us and begets us anew from God (John 1:13), which cru- 
cifies the old Adam, makes us in heart, temper, dis- 
position, and in all owe powers entirely different men, 
and brings with it the Holy Spirit* 0, this faith is 
a living, busy, active, powerful thingl It is imposa- 
ible that it should not be ceaselessly doing that which 
is good. It does not even ask whether good works 
should be done; but before the question can be aSked, 
it has cbne them, and it is constantly engaged in doing 
.them* But he who does not do such works, is a man with- 
out faiths He gropes and casts about him to find taith 
and good works, not knowing what either of their? is, and 
yet prattles and idly multiplies words about faith and 
good works* 

Faith is a living, . if ell -founded confiedence in the 
grace of God, so perfectly certain that it would die a 
thousand times rather than surrender its conviction* 
Such confidence and personal knowledge of divine grace 
makes its possessor joyful, bold, and full of warm affec- 
tion toward God and all created things- all of which 
the Holy Spirit works in faith, ^ Hence, such a man be- 


comes without constraint willing and eager to do good 
to everyone, to serve everyone, to suffer all manner 
of ills, in order to please and glorify God, who has 
shown toward him such grace. It is thus impossible to 
separate works from faith— yea, just as impossible as 
to separate burning and shining from fire» Therefore 
be on your guard against your own false notions and 
unprofitable babblings, ye t^o would be so wise in your 
opinions about faith and good works, although you are 
the greatest fools. Pray God that He may work faith 
in you; otherwise you must remain forever without faith, 
whatever fancies you may invent and whatever works ^-ou 
may be able to perform. 

SINNER OR SAINT? ■ , - • . 

'M am only a sinner saved by grace," Repeatedly this 
statement is made orally or -in T-nr-iting by good brethren, 
VJhat f ollox^^s here is not to call in question the Christ- 
ian experience of those who ascribe to them.selves this 
title « It is wa-^itten to protest the idea. The qualify- 
ing wd^d in "I am only a sinner saved by grace '^ is "onlyy 
which gramiriatically and theolor^ically eliminates from, 
the mind of the hearer or reader the idea of- sainthood. 
It is already forgotten out of mind by the testifier, • 

VJe woul.d ask those who so designate themselves to- 
cite us one Scriptui-e to support the idea^ . l/^ttere in 
the New Testament does anyone acknowledge himself to 
be *^only a sinner saved hj grace"? New Test.ament writers 
were not so poverty-stricken for words. They knew a 
term for a man who was once a sinner and was how saved 
by grace, and used it, 

"To all. . ,in Rome, , .called to be saints, , ," 

"Church, , ,at Corinth, , oCalled to be saints, , ," 

"All the saints, , ,in, , ,Achaia, , ," 

", , .Saints, , ,at Ephesus, , ," 

Sixty-one times Christians are called saints in the - 
New Testament, Only once is a qualifying term used— 
"the poor saints, , ,at Jerusalem," Forty-seven times- 
"sinners" appears in the Bible, and never with a quali- 



fying term^ and least of all the idea of a saved sinner. 
Sinners are always lost. A college professor could 
just as properly say, "I am only an ignoramus "with a 
university degree," Or a physician, "I am only a farm 
boy with a medical education." Hay is dried grass, 
but we never say in wintertime, "I gave the cows grass." 
¥e say, "I gave the cows hay." When we drink a glass 
of sweet cider, we don't say, "I am drinking apples." 
Apples converted into cider have ceased to be apples. 

Vftien a sinner is converted into a saint, the sinner 
• no longer exists any more than do the apples. Are we 
afraid to use the term "saint"? Vflien we say, "I am 
only a sinner saved hy grace," we are not inspired to 
live absolutely ahore the sinner lovely A saved sinner, 
indeed, we say, bit still a sinner. And a sinner sins, 
you know, even if a saved "sinner." If we affirm to 
ourselves that we are saints, vje ai^e inspired to live 
as saints, above sin. I John 2:1. 

Paul said indeed that "Christ Jesus came into the 
world to save sinner I of whom I am chief." E ut he 
did not say, "I am chief sinner." The Greek word for 
"ch:ief" is PROTOS, meaaijag first, or foremost. The 
' first, foremost, most notorious sinner Christ Jesus 
saved.". . .For this cause I obtained mercy, that in 
me FIRST Jesus Christ might shew forth all longsuffer- 
ing, for a pattern to them which should hereafter be- 
lieve on horn. . ." Pa^ol is saying that Christ picked 
cut the foremost sinner to show that grace really works. 

"Thou Shalt call his name JIB US: for he shall save -- 
his people from their sins." Paul was saved from his 
sins, who "was before a blasphemer, and a persecutor, 
and injurious." 'Was he still a "blasphemer"? Was he 
still a sinner saved by grace? Or a saint, saved by 
grace? "Knowing this, that the law is not made for a 
righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for 
the ungodly and for SINKERS, for unholy and profane. ." 
(I Tim. 1:9) • ' ' * 

How would this look in the New Testament: "To the 
saved sinners at Corinth"? Or if you prefer, "to the 
sinners savea by grace, at Corinth,* at Colosse, at 
Rome"? If we protest that we do not consider ourselves 


to be sinners J as euch^ and we don't indeed^ but sinners 
saved^ why say '^sinners"? VJhy not "saints saved," if 
we indicate what happened to us? Do we not dishonor 
Christ when we sirig^ "I am only a sinner) I ajoi only a 
sinner; I am only a sinner^ saved by grace"? Should 
not that song be t^iken out of the songbook? 

Let us read from the Book of Jude now. "The Lord 
Cometh with ten thoiisand of his, , * (sinners saved by 
grace) to execute judgment, , »" (verses lU^ 1^). 

Or from Rev. 19:8: ", , .The fine linen is the 
righteousness of . , .(sinners saved by grace)*" To 
such parody we would all object. But perhaps we can 
see the inconsistency of our practice. The Bible 
teaches holiness for God^s people in both- Old and New 
Testaments, If a saved man is a saved sinner^ then an 
unsaved man is an unsaved sinner. But the Bible never 
bothers to say "'unsaved sinner"; it just says "sinner." 
The term "sinner" is an absolute^ in the Bible, and ad- 
mits of no modifications whatever. The teaching of the 
Bible on holiness for God's people should not need 
emphasis here. 

Saint, sanctify, ar).d sanctification are derived 
from the Latin SANCTUS, meaning holy» In the light 
of the many times that such term.s as "holyj^ "holiness," 
"saints," "sanctify," and "sanctification" are used in 
the Bible as ap7:}lied to God»s people, siirely we should 
not be afraid of presimiption or pride, to own the nam.e 
with which the Holy Ghost Himself names us^ should x^e? 

Let us never again say^ "I am onlj^' a sinner, saved 
by grace, " 

Let us affirm to ourselves and to others that we are 
children of God, Christians, disciples of Christ, saints, 
and be inspired to live +he lives of saints, "to the 
glory of God the I^^ather," "who hath saved us, and called 
us with an holy calling, . ^" 

By Shem Peachey fa?om the 
September, I96O, Gospel Herald. 




DECIUS {2h9 A.D.)« Decius^ like Marcus Antoninus^ 
is also ranked, and justly ranked, among the most vir- 
tuous of the emperors • . The virtues of a pagan were 
usually connected- with his philosophy, and his philos- 
ophy taught him to despise every form of worship • Per- 
haps, too, an imperial eye might view with natural dis- 
trust the free and independent principles of Christian- 
ity, *ieh were now spreading into more general opera- 
tion and notice— principles which acknowledged an auth- 
ority superior to the throne of man; and though they 
devoted -the body to Caesar, yet set apart the sovl for 
God, It would be observed, too, with some jealousy, 
that the progress of that worship was rapid and univer- 
sal, in spite of ancient law, popular opposition, and 
imperial edict. Its TRUllI was seldom investigated, 
because it was not yet sufficiently distinguished from 
svirrounding superstitions, which laid no claim to truth, 
nor even professed to rest on any evidences; and thus 
the prejudices of the schools at once assumed that the 
worship of Christ was no better founded than those of 
Jove and Serapis, 

These reasons, carefully considered will pa3:*tly 
account for the peculiar suspicion which armed itself 
against the 'Christian superstition, ' and at the same 
time will exhibit to us the motives, through the in- 
fluence of which some of the wisest and best among the 
emperors unhappily numbered thenis elves among ova: adver- 

The pernecution of Decius proceeded on a broader 
principle than that of Sever us, as it pretended no less 
than to constrain all subjects" of the eiipire to retijirn 
to the religion of their ancestors; it was also strictly 
universal, as neither confined to particular provinces 
nor classes, but extending -from the lowest confessors 
to the higaest authorities of the Chur-ch, Several were 


consigned to exile or death: Fabienus^ bishop of Rome^ 
Alexander of Jerusalem^ Babylas of Antioch^ were among 
the lattery and the celebrated Origen was subjected to 
imprisonment and tortiire. At Alexandria^ in the year 
preceding the accession of Decius^ some Christians had 
been massacred by the hatred or the avarice of the Pagan 
mob; and as such fatal outrages^ in addition to author- 
ised injustice^ were rather tolerated than promptly re- 
pressed by the government which succeeded that sanguin- 
ary reign, it was much more calamitous to the faith 
than its short duration of three' ye.?irs would lead us to 
apprehend. Indeed^ the unusual number of those 'who fell 
away from their profession in the hour of trial, by 
which this persecution is distinguished from those pre- 
ceding it, is a sufficient proof of its intolerable 

VALEPcIAN, Vfe pass over the comparatively tenient 
inflictions of Gall as and Volusianus; but the sceptre 
of was more darkly stained by the blood of 
Cyprian, bishop of Cax^thage, a man of learning and 
eloquence an.d piety, whose blameless life ana final 
calriiness and constancy have escaped the censure and 
almost the sai^casm of history. It will be instructive, 
as well as interesting, to transcribe the simple narra- 
tive of his martyrdom. 

On the 13th of oeptember, 258, an officer with sold- 
iers was sent to Cyprian *s gardens by the proconsul to 
bring him into his presence. Cyprian -then knew his end 
was near; and with a ready and constant mind and cheer- 
fifL countenance he went without delay to Sexti, a place 
about six lailes from Cartilage, v^iere the proconsul re- 
sided, Cyprian's cause was deferred for that day. He 
was therefore ordered to the house of an officer, where 
he was detailned for the night, but was well accoiiimodated 
and his friends had free access to hiiri. The news of . 
this having been brought to Carthage, a. great number 
of people of all sorts, and ;^ the, Christians in general, 
flocked thence to Sexti; end Cyprian's people lay all 
night before the door of the officer, thus keeping, as 
Pontius expresses it, the vigil, of their bishop's pass- 
ion* ' W . .^ .V* 


On the next morning, the lUth of September he was 
led to the proconsul's palace surrounded by a mixed 
multitude of people and a strong guard of soldiers. 
After sorae time, the proconsul came out into the hall, 
and Cyprian being placed before him, he said, 'Art 
thou Thascius Cyprian?' Cyprian the bishop answered, 
'I am,' Salerius Maximus the proconsul said, 'The most 
sacred emperors have commanded thee to sacrifice,' 
Cyprian the bishop answered, 'I do not sacrifice*' 
Galerius I-iaximus said, 'Be well advised*' Cyprian the 
bishop answered, 'Do as thou art coirimanded; in so just 
a cause thou needest no consultation. ' The proconsul 
having advised his council, spoke to Cyprian in 
angry terms as being an enemy to the gods and a seducer 
of the people, and then read his sentence from a tablet, 
'It is decreed that Thascius C;/prian be beheaded,' 
Cyprian the bishop said, 'God be praised.' and the 
crowd of his brethren exclaimed, 'Let us too be behead- 
ed with him, ' 

This is the account given in the acts of Cyprian's 
passion, and that of Pontius is to the same purpose, 
— feddington's History of the Church, 

VOICE, a paper devoted to the cause of temperance 
(published in Norwalk, California) sets forth some 
startling statistics that many will want to keep for 
further reference: 

"If twenty feet were allowed on a street for every 
license to retail alcoholic beverages in the U,S,A,, 
the street would be lined on one side by liquor stores 
for 1660 miles. Place tlie stores on both sides the 
street and you will have a street lined on both sides 
with only liquor stores eight hundxed thirty miles long. 
This is a fact: over UU3,000 stores are now selling 
alcoholic beverages to millions of gxillible ixabibers! 
This gives us a crude picture of the 'street' licensed 
by law to sell beverages with enough alcohol to ruin 
the human race I Just look at California. The state 
board of equalization said recently that the state's 
drinkers consummed 212,065^000 gallons of beer, 23,756, 
000 of hard liquor, and 29,2^3,000 gal, of wine in 1950. 



Light of the world J Oh shine on ms^ 

Thy little flock belowj 
Shine on the path we daily tread; 
Shine on each poor defenceless head; 
Shine through the shadows dark and dread. 

That hover round us now» 

Light of the world! Oh shine on us^ 

Thy little Pilgrim band; 
Shine on the Way once trod before 
By Thine own feet in sorrow sore, . ,- 
That leads us onward to the shore 

Of Zion's Sabbath-land. 

Light Of the worldi be visible 

In every cloud be seen; 
In every taste of soul distress,.. • 
In every step of wearyness, 
Shine backward o^ei' this wilderness i 

That stretches out between. 

Light of the world! revea.1— reveal, 
And turn from us all harm. 

Make clear the road to Jordan ^s side. 

And meet us by its rushing tide. 

For never evil may betide 

Those sheltered by Thine arm. 

Light of the world] Oh, shine on us, 

As tlur^o ugh that vale we flee; 
That in the city fair and bright. 
That lies beyond— beyond our sight. 
We each in robes of bridal white. 
May stand at last with Thee, 

— Selected by a Sister, 

216 -~ ■ THE PILGRII4 


II Peter was -written several years after I Peter, 
sent also to the chtirches of Asia Minor, This epistle 
is one of encouragement and instruction to these perse- 
cuted Christians, 

The well knoiKm seven divine qualities of the Christ- 
ian as well as other established truths pertaining to 
the Chiirch are outlined in chapter one. 

The warning of apostacy in the Church, of which Peter 
tells in the second chapter, indicates that there were 
already false teachers and leaders in the Churchy Such 
persons, who are al^so present in our day, surely will 
reap their o\m destruction. These unbelievers, x#io 
would lead the Christians astray, vrill come in the last 
daj^s and disclaim the promises of God saying, "Where is 
the promise of His coming? for since the fathers have 
fallen asleep all things continue as they were from 
the creation," 

"Nevertheless we, according to his promise, look 
for new heavens and a new earth wherein dwelleth 
righteousness, " 

Complete the following: 

Add to your faith _; and to _____ knowledge | 

and to knowledge } and to patience; 

and to patience _; and to brotherly 

kindness; and to brotherly kindness ,• 

Joseph VJagoner 
Sonera, California 



*Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain 
from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul." 1 Peter 2: 1 1 

OUR THAMKS. . •• . .' . 

Thank you, Lord, for all the bles&irtgs-- 
That we know' haye qome from Vaeey '■ . ' 

Best of all the great redemption - 
That from sin hath set us free. 

Thank you J Lord,, for food and shelter 

lou have lovingly supplied; 
Thank you for the Holy Spirit • ■ 

VJho has : come -to be our guide. _ , . • 

Thank. you, Lord, for friends and neighbors 
,- And for' parents whom we love; '' \ [ ' ■• ' 
Thank you f or ^the precious promise " 

Of eternal life above. ' • *- ■ ' ■ 

Thank you fcr. the house- of worship ■. 

I'Jhere we love- to meet in prayer;. 
Thank you for your' wondi^ous presence; 

You are with us everyvrhere. 

Thank you for the love you gave us ' ^ . 

\ilh±le we still were lost in sin; 
Thank you for the blessed privilege- " 

'm can still bring others in. 

Thank you for the world of nature; • 
There we, too, can le.arn of Thee. 

We regret our thanks can never 
Cover all we get' from- Thee, 

— Selected 

THE PILGRIM is a religious magazine published monthly by Daniel F. Wolf in the 
inferests of the members of The Old Brethren Church. Subscription rate: $1.50 per year. 
Sample copies sent free on request. Address: THE PILGRIM, Rt. 3, Box 1378, Modesto, Calif. 



1805, Art Zc Further it has been oonsidered that when there 
•v^s made a conclusion at the big yearly meeting, and there are 
members who would not heed, nor conduct themselves accordingly, 
it has been concluded unitedly, that when such persons cannot 
convince the church hy evidence from holy Scripture, and would 
or did rise up against such church conclusions, would not hear 
or obey at all, in such case we could not vrell do otherwise, 
but after sufficient and friendly admonition, to set them back 
from the breaking of bread until they leasm to do better and 
become obedient e , ■ , 

1858, Art 22o ¥&.at should be done mth a brother who holds 
the council of the innual Meeting in disrespect, and who speaks 
lightly and disrespectfully of it? Considered that he should 
be kindly admonished to do so no more^ and if he will not hear 
the admonition he should be dealt with according to Matt. 18. 

1860^ Art lo Inasmuch as we publickly denounce (human) 
church dioipline^ and claim the Kew Testament Scriptures as our 
only rule of faith and practice, is it then consistant with our 
profession to make a strict observance of the minutes of the 
Atmual Council a tfest of fellowship? Answer: The decisions of 
the Annual Meeting are obligatory until such decisions are re- 
pealed hy the same authority^ 

1865, Art 22o As the decisions of Annual Meeting are not 
obeyed by all the overseers of the church, would it not be better 
to district the churches, and extent to those the power to return 
to the Standing Comrrlttee all those who fail to carry out the 
advice of the Annual Counoil? Answer: YeSo 

Same year (1865), Art 34. Does the Annual Counoil make laws, 
or give advice only,- in cases where it has no direct gospel on 
the subject?^ Answer: It gives advice only^ 

1866, ]Jatroductory remarks, last sentence; "Hence we see 
that the Oouncil Meeting should be for conference only." 

Same year (1866 )j» last paragraph of committee report, page 
306, minute book: "The proceedings of the Annual Meeting shall 
be published, and it is earnestly recommended that all the over- 
seers of the churches, whether ordained or not, have them faith- 
fully read and observed in their respective charges. And if it 
be represented to the Axinual Meeting that this recommendation is 


disregarded,' it shall be the duty of the Standing Coimdttee to 
appoint faithful brethren, whose' "duty it shall be to visit said 
chtirches, and see that the ininutes are properly read and observed, 
and set in order the things that are lacking. Resolved that we 
try the^Comnittee's report for at least a sufficient length of 
time to give it a fair trial. 

1872 • /irt 1« Has the church the idght to pass resolutions 
and decisions, and enforce them to the expulsion from the body^ 
-without !rhus saith the positive law of the Lord? Answer: The 
church shall not expell any member mthout gospel authority* 

1864, RI^VxSED MTrOT'ES SSCTIOT 44: "• o • f or man to mafce 
suet decisions is uns criptural o Therefore for the above reasons 
we are dissatisfied mth the ans'/rer given, inasimich as the 
councils of our. Yearly meetings only give advice instead of 
unalterable laws»" 

The above ansx^rers on the question of Annual Meeting 
'^authority" ^tre^ to say the least^ aiabiguous, and in 
some instances thej appear contradictory. They seem 
to. show a lack of any very clear concept in the brother- 
hood of how the "Conclusions" of the Annual Meeting 
were to be regarded by the churches and membership at 
large ♦ More probably it shows that there were two 
distinct minds among the leaders, of the brotherhood on 
this question. 

-Remembering the introductory remarks of the 18I|.8 
^minutes x-fhich saia^ '^And. though as fi^Lly represented 
'as ever before^ it is believed that only about one- 
third of the churches had sent messengers ^ also - 

that in I8I4.7 it was i^Goncluded" to adopt a quite coia-^:;:. 
plete representat-ive system for the; conduct of the"; ',•;; 
Annual Meeting^ but,' abandoned again. the next year,' 
without ever putting it into effect, because ox twelve^ 
letters being received, opposing the plan^'lt appears, . 
that at that time (nearly 100 years after: the. brother- ■ 
hood had adopted a regular yearly counsel), Elders and 
local churches still enjoyed considerable freedom and 
option regarding their participation in . the. Annual i^leet- 
ing system and the acceptance of its "conclusions •" 
The most probable interpretation of it is, that leihen 
the overseers and leaders of the local churches felt 
tha^t such donclusions were right arid Scriptural, they 
welcomed, the added influence of the. Annual Meeting to • 


impress it on the membership. But, if conclusions 

were made that they did not consider Scriptural, they^ 

either protested it or did not feel bound by it. This 
liberty: was no doubt the safe-guard that preserved the 
peabe for so many years in the brotherhood xintil the 
new order of a Federal authorative system began to be 
developed" around the middle of the nineteenth century* 

Against this background of a divided sentiment and 
undecided policy in the brotherhood from 1858 to the 
time of the divide in 1881-82, on the question of A.M, 
authority, the whole controversy was revived again 
twenty years later in the Old Order church in connect- 
ion with the question of whether it was allowable for 
members to have and use "Telephones,^* which at that 
time was a marvelous and sensational modern invention. 

The following minutes from I903 to 1913 will show 
the same ambiguity and lack of unity on this question 
as that of their predecessors prior to l88i:: 

1903, Art 3* IS' it in accord mth the gospel and the non- 
conformed principles of the Old Brethren for members to have 
telephones in their/houses, and thereby grieving some of oiir 
dear Old Brethren, and destro3dng union and fellowship among 
members? Answer: Idasnmoh as some of our members have tele- 
phones and thereby give offence to some of our dear members 5 
we advise members not to have them. See I Cor« 8:13| 10:32, 33, 

1904^ Art 4cj Inasmixoh as a nuinber of queries came up to 
the Yearly Meeting of 1904 regarding the telephone, which were 
somewhat different in their requests, so the counsel concluded 
them all in one answer, as follows:- Answer: To the various 
queries relative to the telephone; We, your several sub- 
oomnattes adinlse that our beloved members use more care and 
caution in the agitation of the telephone question, and that 
we hold all former decisions of Yearly meetings on the teleph- 
one question as we do decisions of all other questions: as 
advisory and not ms^ndatoryo Passed the general counsel unani- 

1905, Art 1, Tnasmach as of late years there is an apparent 
departure from the ancient ruling of our- did Brethren in Annual 
Meeting by way of giving answeres to queries and calling said 
answers merely advice, thereby loosing the power and binding 
effect in the local churches where the difioulties exist and 
from whence the queries are sent for higher council, mil not 
this Yearly Meeting readopt and reprint in this answer the 
minutes of 1660, article 1, so -that all the members may regard 
those decisions' as binding upon the local churches according 


to the Word of the Lord? See l^tt. 16:19; 18:18; Jno. 20:23;- • 
Acts 15:28,29. ijiswer: This Yearly meeting grants the req.uest 
of the query and read opts the answer to article I5 1860, which. 
reads as follows: The decisions of Annual Meeting are ohlig- 
atory. imtil such decisions shall he repealed hy the same author- 
ity* ■ \ ' . 

sum YEM (1905) Art 4* Iiiasmuoh as there is a gret deal 
of dissatisfaction and grievance in the hrotherhood, because 
.Yearly Meeting is disrespected, by not adhearing to the advices 
of Yearly. Meeting, we therefore pTB,y Yearly Meeting of 1905^ 
to read opt and so recoirinend to our brotherhood, the concluBioas 
of our forefathers at Yearly Meeting of 1805, article 2, ?fhich 
reads as follovrs:'. "It has been considered that when thet*e' is 
made a conclusion at the big Yearly Meeting and there are 
members who weald not heed nor conduct themselves aco'crdingly, 
it has heen concluded unitedly that when such persons cannot 
o on vino e the church by evidence from Holy Scripture, or would 
or did rise up against said church conclusions, woiild not hear 
or obey at all, in such case we could not well do othervase, 
but after sufficient and friendly admonition^ to set them back 
from the breaking of bread until they learn to do better*" 
Answer : Thx s , Yearly xne et ing r ea d opt s the - query of 1805 , Art 2 , 
with the. foil omng amendment: That "the Yearly Meeting shall 
be more careful so as not to pass decisions without gospel ' ^ 
authority, Rev« 22:18^19* * 

Sj^vfS YEAR (1905) Art 4» , Inasnmph as there were four -queries 
presented to this Yearly Meeting, asldng for a reconsideration 
of the answer of article 4 of 1904, on the telephone., it' wasi .. 
decided to grant their request, and adopt the following answer 
instead: Answer: V/e advise that our beloved menibers \tse more" 
care and caution in the agitation of the telephone question 
and that ire hold the former decisions of Yearly .Meet ing (on-the' 
telephone question) as we do decisions on many other questions #; 

1909, Art 1. Inasrrruch as union ym^s the object of the Old 
Brethren in the separation — they said in one of their petitions, 
*'our plain decisions have beeii disrespected and overruled, and 
if thi.s state of things shall continue to exist we vdll lose 
all our, power in the controlling , of the church*" Therefore, 
what mast be done now mth such elders and congregations that "■ 
disregard the decisions of our Yearly Meeting? /inswer: The 
councils. of the Yearly Meeting are designed to keep the unity, 
of the '.Spirit -in the bond of peace, and we tliBrefore admonish 
all elders and congregations to respect her (the Yearly MeetingVs) 
counsels -until such time when she can unitedly see wherein she 
erred in giving conns el # Passed by the Meeting. 

1913, ^t 1» Since the telephone question has agitated the\ 
the minds of our brethren to a perplexing extent, various decis- 
ions having been passed by Yearly Meetings upon the subject 


have gro-vsa disoensions and discord -until NECESSITY DEMANDS a 
reconsideration of the whole question, etot (capitals ours)* 

1913, page 101 # jto.swer to Pamona Peti oners: "Now as to the 
. church iDaking all her decisions obligatory, she never has done 
so, as the conclusions of the fathers evidence to us«" 

Again in 1919, which is beyond the scope of the Old Brethren 
history, it was said. in answer to. a query regarding automobiles, 
"All -Annual Meeting advices are good and should' be accepted 
alike until repealed by Annual Jieeting*" 

. In view of all these conflicting statements _, one 
wonders haw Elders and local congregations coiild know 
what their real obligation to the Annual Meeting was^ 
and how they shotild proceed to obey such '^decisions;" 
surely no, consistant New Testament student would wish 
to claim the same inspiration and authority for these 
proceedures and pronouncements as that of the .Jerusalem 
CouncjLl of Acts 1^. Rather^ are not such conflicting 
statements sufficient proof of their immaturity and 
f alibility? 

It will be observed' that the terms obligatory^ man- 
datory^ binding^ observe^ respect, etc, were all used 
to describe the attitude that members shou].d have to- 
ward the decisions of Annual Meeting j and perhaps all 
them meaning "to obey," as against the opposing idea 
of advisory only (making it optional). Thus the terms 
"obligatory" on the one hand, and "advisory only" on 
the other, became the watch-words of the opposing 
schools of thought on this question. 

We do not believe that either of these- terms, with 

'their various connotations, describes a proper ■ attitude 
toward our Annual Meetings. Nor do we believe there 
can be a satisfactory answer to this question until 
the purpose and function of the Annual Meeting is first 
determined; that is, what its service to the brotherhood 
should be. This was well stated in the introduction 

^ to the minutes of I8ii0, which says, "Since it hath 
pleased God to spare over, lives, and to count us worthy 
once more to assemble at the yearly meeting, the de- 
sign of which is to promote our union in- love and con- 
cord ' of spirit, to encourage one another to 
faithfulness and watchfulness in these last critical 
times, and to strengthen us mutually in the faith and 


obedience of the gospel^ to warn of dangers, and to 
resist with united efforts every- evil which threatens 
to break in, and especially in diff iciilties that may 
arise, on request of our beloved brethren, to give our 
siniple advice, etc." 

This we believe to be a- valid purpose. And a meeting 
so conducted could be of great service to the brother- 
hood to promote such worthy objectives. But this simple 
fraternal spirit of equality and freedom in conference 
and counsel was already, then, in the prcess of change, 
and in the next twenty or thirty years had given way 
to a federal authorative system with executive committ- 
ees authorized to enforce its rulings in local churches 
with or without their consent, as shown by the minutes 
of the thirty yecirs just prior to 1331-32, Although 
this new federal, organisation claimed' the Jerusalem 
Council for its origin and pattern, there is nothing',. 
in tiae records to indicate that our first brethren who 
adopted and used an annual meeting for mutual counsel 
and conference, peacefully, for nearly one hundred years 
before the change was made, believed they were conduct- the same kind of authorative council as that re- 
corded in Acts 15. The whole face of it was different:;-- 
chiefly because of the absence of the apostles. To 
assume that our Annual Meetings are the same as .the 
Jerui:alem Council, is to claiii successors to the apost- 
les. The occasion is not the same, the questions are 
not of the same nature, nor are the decisions the same. 

There ±a no evidence, or reason to believe, that 
the Jerusalem Council became a regular institution or 
that there was ever another such meeting in the apost- 
olic chui'ch. Had there been, then surely the Corinthian 
disorder would have been referred to it. Also the 
terrible apostacy of several of the seven churches of 
Asia woiild surely have been legitiiaate business for 
such a council. 

¥e have extended our rcr^arks somewhat on the Jerttsa-* 
lem Goimcil because of the persistant claim in the Old 
Order Eunkex" churches that our Annual Meeting is a 
divine instution, of which the Jerusalem Council was 

(continued on page 23lt) 


by J. I. Cover 

Man being fiilly responsible must give account to God 
of his regard in accepting or rejecting God's lax'^s and 
rule J of his treatment to his fellow man and of his 
folloMing or rejecting Satan. 

Gods mercy^ love, and cax^e to manl^ind has been evi- 
dent from creation to the present time. Man^s reaction 
to God's mercies and provisions likewise have been evi- 
dent; some accepting and believing that "God isj and 
that he is a rewarder of them that dilligently seek him*" 
Others living in open rebelion and unbelief, and living 
for the present time have (x^rith S^tail^s help) set up 
religious systems of worship of all manner of things 
and conditions, besides living in open sins of scax'let 

These deplorable conditions have resulted in the en- 
slavement of masses of humanity. Cruelty, selfishness, 
and oppression have been forced upon succeeding ages of 
the race of Adain, until sui'fering, despair, and hopeless- 
ness have been the result. It has been revealed to us, 
our merciful God long ago i^iD'old have closed the book 
of time, and banished the h^aman race without hope of 
future life— but for his mercy in sending his Son, Jesus 
Christ into the world. 

God's plan of Misdoia to raise to life all the race 
of Adam, allows the rays of hope to shine through the 
clouds of despair, so now "it is appointed unto man 
once to die, but after this the judgment."— The Bar of 
Judgment, where the complete review of every thought, 
word and deed of the human race will be completely re- 
vealed in all its intricate relationship that exists 
between man and man, systems to systems; also the com- 
plete efforts of Satan in rebellion against God, and 
his deceptive, seducing, and cunning work upon Angels 
and mankind id-ll be exposed by the revealing power of 
the Word of God. 

We have confidence that the Judge of all the earth 
will do right, and render unto every man according to 


his" Borks» ^ • . ':: 

No human mind can concieve the impressive^ and amaz- 
ing scene of the entire hwaan race being together at 
the bar of judgment. The Judge of all the earth mth 
the signals of "come'' and "depart" in' his hands. 

The final judgment Bar takes place after heaven and 
earth have passed away as we read: "And I saw a great 
^ite tiirone^- and him that sat on it'^ from vjhose face 
the earth and the heaVen fled away; and there wa& found 
no place for them." Rev. 20:11. Before heaven aLid . 
earth passes awa.y^ the graves open^ and the dead Come 
forth, the sea and elements of matter all mysteriously 
give up the' dead and all mankind 'lives again; the' ^ , .. . 
whirling spheres pass away with a great noise, and all 
humankind stands by God's arraignment at Judgment* Bar.; •■ 
No one can hire a lawyer to plead his case. A true 
record of all m.ankind, their thoughts, words, and. .deeds 
will be presented. Only those who have their naivies 
written in the Lambs Book of Life will be secure and 
permitted to enter in through the gates into the city 
of the King of Kings and Lord of Lords, into his glor- 
ious presence for evermore. 

[Trumpet call, tr-ompet call^ . • " . 

Those •vmo sleep aimken all; 
Frcm tlie earth, and sky,, and sea, ' 

God's po77er drawing you and me • 

Judgment Bar, Judgment Bar-5'} '*. ^- .. :*•.;." 

.. - To his presence near and far | ,,. .. 

Mil %he race of Adam come^ '' 

Find at last their final homeo •• ' '■■^•' " 

Mving light, living light, 

111 the righteous to the right ^ 

Come the blessed to their larid, "• ^ 

Where the shining angels stand. 

Final doom, final doom. 

Banished to the left hand room; ' 
• •■ • ■ Banished from the scenes of light. 

Into deepest darkest night. 

Nextr Uttermost Salvation, 



Unintentional error is as much error as the false 
in malicious propaganda. While the motive may be right, 
the eETor may produce serious results. If a doctor 
should write a prescription in all good faith, and the 
pharmacist detects death in the prescription, vxhat 
should he do about it? Or, in case the doctor writes 
a correct prescription, and the pharmacist makes an 
UNINTENTIONAL error, woixLd the patient escape physical 
disaster? So it is with nice and catchy religious 
phrases so often reiterated without considering their 
implications. If they are not scriptural, they are not 
a good prescription for any sin-stricken soul. The 
Scriptures are not slow to warn us against error of 
this sort, 


Here is a list of expressions that come from fionda- 
mentalist sources and without doubt are intended by 
the writers or speakers to make plain the way of sal- 
vation to inquiring and listening souls and to bring 
honor to our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, These 
statements are definite and positive. They are not 
cast in a modernistic mold with a "yea and nay"; however, 
they still contain what I have chosen to call "uninten- 
tional error," 

1, Someone else has drawn our wages; someone else 
has received our sentence; someone has received the 
SECOND DEATH in our place^ That person is Jesus Christ, 
the Son of God, 

2, No mere hximan could have paid the price for all 
sin, but it was the God-man, Jesus Christ, who received 
OUR PENi\LTY, who hung on the cross for us* 

3, We can't imagine THE HORROR OF HELL, of being 
altogether separated from God; and we need never experi- 
ence it because Christ has gone through that for us, 

Ut He sent His only Son from the courts of heaven, 
in the rian Christ Jesus, who willingly took our place 
and received OUR PUNISHtlEOT of death and hell* 


5. He knew that this death on. th^ .cros3 meant not 
only physical death, but also the agony 'of hell itself 
for Him, because as He hung on the cross He was SEPA*» 
MTED from God.; He- was ABANDONED by God* " '~ ' • ' 

6« The Lord took our place as a LOST SINNER, sepa-/ 
rated from God that/we might .go. to His place* 

?• Christ takes our sins and we take His righteous- 
ness. Our sins are IMPUTED to Christ, 

8, Clothed -mth THE ROBE of, Christ's rightedusness. 

9, Christ's righteousness is IiffUTED to us. Our 
sin is II^IPUTED to Christ, We ai*e as righteous as 
Christ, He became as sinful on the cross as we were. 
He BORE 01® PENALTY on the cross, Jesus TASTED SPIRI- 
TUAL DEIATH for u&. We are guilty of Adam^s in or we 
share in the guilt of our first parents. Christ *s 
death on the cross was PMAL, 

10, Righteousness of God is imputed unto us ana you 
.can weai^ that robe in, this life and corae fortii in the ■ 
resurrection weaxing that robe, , 

I'fliere do people get their autliority for statements 
like these? Likely they.v?oula ans^^er that they are ■' 
based on the Scrip tiores, but what Scriptures, we niay 
well inquire, teach such statements? We are here quo- 
ting ten of the most pi'ouiinent verses or portions upon 
which many of the f oz^egoing quotations are based presum- 
ably. Do these Scr-iptm^es . justify such expressions?' ■ 

1, "Surely he hath borne over griefs, and. carried 
our- sorrows: yet we Jid esteem hini stricken, srrdtteh, 
of God, and afflicted. '^ (Isa, 3'3:il)# 

2.-' '^^But he' was wo^anded for our transgressions, he' 
was bruised for -oux*' iniqiiitie s ; the chastiseraent of cur 
peace was upon hiJT!| and >rLth his stripes we are healed,'^ 
(Isa, 53:5). „■; 

3, "The Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us' 
all," (Isa 53:6), 

km "Wnen thou shalt make his soul an offering for " 
sin," (Isa 53-10)» 

5, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me 2'^ 
(Matt, 27:U6; Mark l5:3U). 


6, "Behold the Lamb of God, \iiich taketh away the 
sin of the world," (John 1:29). 

'7« "For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew 
no sinj that we might be made the righteousness of God 
in himo" (II Cor. 5:21), 

6, '^Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the 
law, being made a curse for us: for it is written. 
Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree," (Sal© 
3:13) c 

9, "That he by the grace of God should taste death 
for ever J man," (Heb» 2:9)-o 

10, "Bare our sins in his own body on the tree," . 
(I Pet, 2:2U). "For Christ also hath once suffered 
for sins, the just for the unjust, tha,t he might bring 
us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quick- 
ened by the Spirit," (I Pet. 3:18), 

Let us now look at the quotq,tions in the light of 
the above Scriptures arzd take note of the iraplications. 

It appears that we ar^e accustomed to use the word 
"penalty" rather freely, but apparently we do not under- 
stand the implications of the term^ Doubtless no one 
has thought of the implications of this word as used 
by the penaD.ists in their statements about the atone- 
ment of our Lord* Christ, without suffering the f'oll 
penalty due sinners, made a substitutionary provision 
through the blood of His cross, thus enabling God to 
be both "just, and the justifier of hii.i which belioveth 
in Jesus," The penalty of physical, spiritual, and 
eternal, or second death, belongs to sinners. JKSUS 

The quoted statements belong to the J^ef ormed or 
Calvinistic theology, although not all theologians of 
this school will accept all of the statements. In 
Reformation and later times, the theologians using 
such expressions, believed in what is called ."penalism. '* 
It is to be questioned whether any Bible student today, 
excepting a hyper-Calvinist, would endorse these state- 
ments in TOTO, unless it be one who emphasizes the 
fifth point of Calvinism, -liiich relates to the persev- 


erance of the elect, usually designated today as the 
teaching of eternal security. Even one who has accepted 
this teaching, will not stand up under questioning to 
the full import of these utterances « Is it as serious 
J to *^take from" or '^add to'-^ the truth relating to the 
^ atonement of our Lord as it is to "subtract from" or 
V "add to" the prophecy of our Lord? If it is, then we 
need to be careful to avoid adopting nice-sounding 
statements which are extra or anti-Scriptural. 

Let us look again at the quotations. Practically 
all of them teach that Claris t bore the fiai penalty of 
sin, that He died a spiritual death, that He received 
the second death in our place, that He was altogether 
separated from God, that He received our punishiiient of 
death and hell, that He was not only separated from 
God, but abandoned by God, that He endiired the agony of 
torment in hell, that He tasted spiritual death for us, 
that we are clothed in a robe of Christ's righteousness, 
that all our sin x^^as iraputed to Him until He was as 
wicked as we are, and His righteousness is imputed to 
us so that we are as righteous as He is* 

These quotations give us the major points of doctrine 
involved in the penal theory « If Christ paid our pen- 
alty, and what GJirist did on the cross was sufficient 
for all, then as stated by VJiley, we face either \miv- 
ersalism or a limited atonement. The Calvinist escapes 
consistently by claiming that the death of Christ was 
for the elect only and therefore it is impossible for 
an elect one, to perish because Christ bore his penalty 
for him. If an elect one could perish, then God would 
be unjust in collecting the penalty once from Christ and 
j once from the lost elect oneo WE BELIE\/E THIS IS CON- 
'^ TRARI TO THE TRUTH OF SGRIPT^JEE. The. other horn of the 
J dilemma is Universalism and it is just as unscriptural. 
If it were true, hell would be depopulated and the lake 
of fire woiad be unnecessary. All past, present, and 
future sinners would be saved because Christ paid the 
penalty for all. God could not be just and collect the 
penalty first from Christ and then from every Christ- 
rejecting sinner, because according to the penal theory 


Clirist's work on the cross covers unbelief and all forms 
of sin. 

Penalty involves punishment. The guilty are punished, ^ 
the innocent suffer. At no place in the Scripture is " 
it stated that our Lord was punished. He is always 
said to have suffered. Only the wicked will be punished, 
II Thess. l:7-9j Matt, 25:31-146. 

That Jesus Christ did not go into the torment region 
of sheol (hell) is amply proved hj the fact that at 
deathj while His body was laid in Joseph's tomb. His 
soul went into paradise where the penitent malefactor 
was and not where the iirpenitent one was, 

^ That Christ's' righteousness is imputed to us and 
our sins are imputed to Him is another unscriptural 
deduction. There is no Scripture that tells us that 
we are "clothed in Christ's righteousness** or that all 
of over sins were "imputed^' to Him, Our faith in the 
atonemeiit of Christ is imputed (or reckoned or counted) 
to us for righteousness, Christ does not put a robe 
of righteousness over all ox our filthiness. This may 
be good eternal security doctrine, but its trend is to- 
ward antinomianism* lie are cleansed by tiie blood of 
Christ, renewed in mind, regenerated, and walk in the 
light as He is in the light. 'Walk in the Spirit, ^nd ." 
ye shall not fulfil the iust of the flesh." The ''fine 
linen" in the comdng day is the "righteousness of saints" 
and not the righteousness of Christ, Our -^!robes" have 
been washed in the blood of the L&jnb, His robes n^ed 
no washing because He was mthout sin* 

— Adapted from Herald of Truth, April, 1958,, 

Lord, let me serve my fellow man 

And always do the best I can. 
Not with thought of escaping hell. 
Nor for the hope of gaining heaven, 
■ But let me serve for love alone. 
And freely give as Thou hast given. 

' J. G. Hootman 
Modesto, Calif. 


by Elder James Quinter 

This text was Luther's sword. With it he slew more 
of the enemies of the Reformation than Samson slew of 
the Philistines with the jawbone of an ass. The text 
readily suggests two questions. 



These two questions being clearly answer ed^ the. grand 
copula, upon which the meaning and force of the text 
depends, is readily understood as to the quality of tiie 
life which it involves. It evidently means a good life, 
a holy life, an obedient life, a humble life, a pure 
life out of a pure heart. It means that the just or 
righteous shall live a life conformed in all respects 
to the character of that state of heart in which lo\^e 
to God holds dominant rule, ana subordinate love to man 
prompts to a life of vital charity^ 

!• WHO ARE THE JUST? The just, in the sense of the 
text, are those who are righteous, and who desire to 
grow more and m.ore righteous ±m God's sight. Men may 
be righteous in their own sight, ard very unrighteous in 
God's sight. Ana precisely the reverse of this: they 
m_ay be great sinners* in their ovm sight, and just or 
righteous in God's sight. This last state was Paul's 
experience when he pronounced himself "the chief of 
sinners.!' He felt that he was righteous or just in 
God's eye 5 but in his own eye, enlightened by the ¥ord 
and Spirit of the Lord, he was vile. This consciousness 
gave vent to many exclaiiiations such as these: "0 wretch- 
ed man that I ami who shall deliver me from the body of 
this death?" Again: "For I know that in ma, that is, 
in my flesh, there dwelleth no good thing." On the 
other hand, the Pharisee, tdio stood praying in the temple 
was righteous in his ox^jn view of himself, and "thanked 
God that he was not as other men"- a sinner like unto 
them, he meant, of course. This line of thought suggests 
another question; . 

scripture hath concluded all under sin*" This same 

232 '. ' .. .■ . . , THE PILGPJM 

apostle tells us that "we are justified (made righteous) 
by f aithj . • • for with the heart man believeth unto 
righteousness." Probably no passage of Scripture has 
been subject to worse misconstruction than this one. 
It has been made to teach that a mere declaration of 
faith in Christ procures the instantaneous forgiveness 
of all sin^ passes the sinner out of death into life^ 
makes him a regenerate child of God, and gives him ap 
inalienable title to citisensMp in heaven. But I 
have not so learned Christy nor do I understand Paul 
to teach anything like thia. I do not deny that a sin- 
cere and heart confession of Ghj^ist is a step, the 
first step, to these heavenly blessings; but I do deny 
that Christian perfection rests upon a nailed confession 
of him by the mouth. The thoughtless sinner does not 
know Christ. He has never in heart so much as asked 
the questions "Vvho is he. Lord, that I maj- believe on 
him?" God has never been in all his thoughts. "The 
world knew him not," md the world .knows him not now,> 
Mien one, then, is suddenly wrought upon hj some inf lu-» 
ence as was the Philippian jailer, by which, in his 
distress, he cries out, "Vftiat must I do to be saved?" 
the answer that Paul gave is exactly the rlglit answer. 
"Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be 
saved," And this leads to my second ar^id last question: 
VffiAT IS FAITH? I will here give Paulas definitions 
We come to God by faith. "And he that ccmeth God" 
— or to Christ the same— "laust believe that he is, and 
that he is a rewarder of 'them that diligently seek him." 
Faith must, then, be the very first step in the direct^^u.^ 
ion "of receiving good from the Lox^d.' 1/e see striking 
examples of this in the life of Jesus on earth. - What 
brought the throng from all directions that attended • 
and even pressed him? It was faith, the belief tiiat 
he could do them good. But it .was not spiritual or . 
heavenly good they sought so much as : bodily good*.. 
Jesus reminded them of this in the words: "le seek me, 
not because of the miracles,—," not becavise. you desire ^ 
proofs of my divine power to save your, souls from eter- 
nal death,— "but because ye ate of the loaves, and were 


filled." But true faith^, the faith that saves the soul^^ 
the faith by which the just shall live, is a LO.VIMG ACG* 
how does man live by it? By obeying it^ by making its 
precepts the rixLe and guide of his lifeo By faith the 
Word becomes "a lamp unto his path." "It is as the 
light that shineth more and more unto the perfect day*" 
All who believe the Lord*s words, as contained in our 
New Testament, because th^y love their truth, and from 
the heart desire to live,-^tfe4is means^ order their lives 
and conduct by them,— believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, 
And these have the promise of eternal life: ."For G od 
so loved the world, that. he gave his only begotten Son, 
that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but 
have everlasting life," 

«*^From the Life and Labors of Elder John Kline, i860 


A mature saguaro cactus can absorb as much as -a ton 
of water during a torrential downpour • It puffs and 
ballons out proudlyc Then during the folloi' times of do 
of drouth, as it uses this moisture, it shrinks and 
shrivels and developes wrinkles. \A/hen, and if, it gets 
more moistiire, it ballons out again. 

How much like the cactus plant we Christians often : 
are! We have a series of revival meetings in which we 
receive a downpour of spiritual blessings^ We fill up 
to overflowing with the Living Water. Then the meetings 
are over and we settle back, satisfied with what we 
have and hoarding it. We fail to take a daily infill- 
ing. Before long our souls are shrunken and shriveled 
and our dispositions are as prickly as the cactus.. We 
wait for another downpour. 

If we woiild go daily to the source of Living Water 
and spend much time alone with Him, He could keep our 
souls and dispositions like the sugar maple— yielding 
sweetness instead of thorns, —Selected 


MNUAL 1€:ETBJG, (Continued from page 223) 
the origin and pattern; and therefore its decisions 
have the same authority as the, decrees of that council. 

¥e do not believe this claim- is sustained by either 
the New Testament or church history. But we believe 
it has been the occasion for all the controversy re- 
garding the '^authority ^^ of iimiual I-Ieeting decisions. 

If this claim is not substantiated, then the Axinual 
■Meeting can be appraised and accepted on its own merits 
as one of the helps an.d means, which the ch'orch is 
privileged to use for the mutiial intercourse of the 
churches of the brotherhood for the purposes indicated 
*in the introduction to the l8i|.0 minutes; "to encourage 
one another to faithfulness in these last critical 
times, and to strengthen us mutually in *bhe faith and 
obedience of the gosf)el^ to warn of dangers, and to 
resist >7ith. united efforts every evil which threatens . 
to break in. ... " If these are valid objectives for 
the church, then the imnual Meeting can be an effective 
means to promote them if full equality and freedom of 
counsel is preserved in conference. 
- ■• The question at issue is not whether there is auth- 
orised government " and discipline in the church, as 
every New Testament student knoxvs there is. And both 
Jesus and the apostles have given detailed instructions 
of how it shoiold be administered. Nor is thei^e any 
question about the expediency and profitableness of 
the churches of the brotherhood ma-intaining the closest 
association and common effort in the persuit of their 
holy calling, as the New Testament abundantly shows 
that this was the practice of the apostolic churches. 

But the question is, whether the Nevj Testament 
authorizes an extra -representative organization with 
delegated powers to ass-Jiae judgment and jurisdiction 
in local churches, which have* d\ily authorized overseers, 
and whether such churches may transfer their God-given ' ; 
responsibilities of discipline to such a representative 

In Matt, 18 the church is the final authority to 
judge the case at hand. There is no provision for some 
"higher" representative authority to review and super- * 


ceed the judgment of the chiirch. And in I Cor 5:U^5 
the apostle Paul instructs that churchy when they are 
assembled^ with his spirit, and the power of the Lord 
Jesus Christ to excoinmunicate the incestuous person. 

Nothing that is said in this writing is intended to 
advocate individualism or independence in the churchy 
nor to deny its legitimate gospel authority and dis- 
cipline. But it is when these powers are abused or 
unauthorized powers are assumed that confusion and 
contempt for authorized government result. And finally 
disrespect and dishonor for the Church of Jesus Christ 
which is most worthy of our respect and honour and 

We have endeavored to be factual, in. our study on 
this subject. The minutes of Annual Meeting show 
that there has been much controversy and confusion on 
this question in the past, and some of it has been 
continued to our o>m time^ mth no very clear analysis 
of the principles involved in. it. Our church still 
continues to have ''Annual Meeting,'^ but with a some- 
what different out-look than what it once had. We 
believe it can be a useful' means for maintaining 
brotherhood fellowship and unity, and for the encour- 
agement of ourselves and our youth in the continuation 
of our holy calling in the church of Jesus Christ. 

On the subject of Annual Meeting and its proper 
use and function araong us, our church has declared in 
conference in 19$h in the following manner: "We recog- 
nize the right and expediency of the churches to assem- 
ble yearly, or as often as the need may arise, to 
consider matters of general interest, to promote unity 
of Christian faith, and also to formulate and unify 
ceremonial forms for the practice of the New Testament 
ordinances, elections, ordinations, etc«" 

Written for the enlightment and edification of our 
youth and those whose responsibility it may be to con- 
duct the Annual Meeting in the future for these desired 
ends.— D.F.W. 




DIOCLETIAN. Diocletian published his first> edict 
in the February of -303. Three others of greater sev- ^■ 
erity succeeded it J and, dui'ing a sharaef ul period of 
ten years, they were very generally and rigorously ■ 
enforced by himself, his colleagues, and succeSv^sors. 
It is needless to particulai^i^e the degrees ^of barbar- - 
ity by x^iiich those .edicts x^ere severally distinguished j 
the substance of the xJiole series is this. • The sacred 
books of the Christians were sought for and tamnit^ ■ ' . 
death was the punishexnent of all who assembled' secretly 
for religious worshipf iiaprlsonmant, slavery, and In- ' 
famy were . inflicted on the dignitaries and presidents - 
of the;;.Ghur,chesj. every art and' me tliod was enjoined for 
the.cphveraiori;of the believers^ and airiong those meth'ods 
were .various- descriptions of torture, soToe ..of 'them fatal ♦ 
During-, the pi^eceding -ninety years, the Church had -avail- 
ed itself .of. tne consent or connivance of - the civil ■ 
government, to erect nmneroTis religious edifices, and 
to-p.urchase-some landed proper tyj these buildings, were, 
now demolished,: and "the property underwent, the usual, 
process vdf Confiscation.. A more degrading, but less 
effectual, raeas"ixre. ; attended these; Ghriattans were ex- 
cluded from all publ.ic . honor s , ana offices, and even 
reriiQved without the pale of the lai^s and the protection 
of justice |. liable to .all accusations, and inviting them 
by their adversity, they were deprived of every form ^ 
of legal redress. Such, vxere the penalties contained 
in thbse .edicts; and though it be. true -that in some .of ■ 
the western provinces of the empire, as in Gaul and' 
perhaps Britain,, their asperity was sbnewhat .softened 
by the character and influence of the Caesar, Constan- 
tins, v;e are not allowed to: believe that their execut- 
ion even there was generally neglected, and. we have -• 
too much reason to be assured that it was .conducted - 
with very subservient zeal thiroughout the rest of the 



empire. In process of time the sufferings of the Chris- 
tians were partially alleviated by the vitories of Con- 
stantine; but they did not finally terminal til 

ACCESSION OB- CONSTANTIME. That event, which took" 
place in the year 313, and which marks the first grand 
epoch in ecclesiastical history ended at the saiae time 
both the fears and the sufferings of the followers of 
Christ, and established his worship as the acknowledged 
religion of the Roman eiiipire. 

As the account here given of the persecutions of the 
early Christians differs in some respects froiti' the views 
usually taken of this important portion of our history, 
it may be proper to close this chapter with a few addi- 
tional remarks. 

MPOPULARITI OF CHRISTIANS. 1st-. Contemporary evi-' ' 
dence obliges us to admit, that the Christian naJTie was 
for many years (so late at least as the rign of Decius) .. 
an object of deciaed aversion to many of those who did 
not profess itj whether of the learned, who scorned the' 
origin, were ignorant of the principles, and feared the 
progress, of the new religion, or of the vulgar, who 
believed the cal\imnies so industriously propagated 
against its professors. Hence proceeded those popular 
tinnults, which, during the first two centuries (if we 
except from them the rign of Marcus Antoninus), may have 
destroyed as many victims as the deliberate policy of 
the emperors, or the established system of religious 
government. Still it must appear singular that a body 
of persons, distinguished by the moral qualities which 
are almost universally attributed to the first Cinristians, 
should have incurred the hatred of their fellow-subjects, 
rather than the admiration, or at least ttie sjTTipathy, 
which was claimed by the character of their vrf^tues* 
There are several reasons by which we may account for 
this strange circumstance. The prejudices and passions 
of mankind were opposed to the new religion; it contra- 
dicted their received ways of worship, the dictates and 
practices of their forefathers, their own indulged lusts 
and evil habits. Even the fartie and semblance of peculiar 
sanctity are ever objects of bitter jealousy to those 


who are incapable of its practice, and who consequently 
dispute its reality. Again, "when it was observed that 
Christians were not contented with mere inactive pro-^ 
fession, but were animated with industrious seal for 
the extension of their faith, a disposition to suspect 
and resist it, as it were in self-defence, was excited 
among many; and those >jho might have tolerated an indif- 
ferent or merely speculative superstition,, armed them-^ 
selves against the active and converting spirit of Chris- 
tianity. Another, perhaps the most effective, and cer- 
tainly the original cause of that aversion, was the 
persevering hostility of the Jews to the name of Ci'irist, 
In some of the more popiL!.ous and commercial cities, the 
Jews formed no inconsiderable portion of the inhabitants, 
and they were scattered in smaller numbers over the 
U^hble face" Ox the East, The destruction of their capi- 
tal increased the crowd of exiles, and inflamed the 
afigry spirit by' >h ich they were animated. It 'is true 
that, in their attempts at open outrage, they were some- 
times restrained by the civil oower; but they xv^ere more 
successful in theij" secret endeavors to excite against 
the rising; sect the contempt or malice of the heathen. 
To their malignity we, may probably attribute those mon- 
strous cal'amnies vh ich tainted the Christian name, at 
tiie very period wlien its professors were farthest re-^ 
moved from corruption. It Wtas rumor ea and believed 
that the- religious meetings of the xaitlif ul vrere poll- 
uted by alternate excesses of superstition and debauch- 
ery* the mysteries especially were invested with the 
most revolting character the Eucharist was said to be 
celebrated by the sacrifice oi' an infant, and. the Feast 
of Charity was represented to be a revel of cannibals. 
, These stories contained nothing incredible to a pagan, 
^* cm the external pity of the new religionists renaered 
still more supicious of their private conversation. 
Without difficulty he believed in the perpetration of 
rites which bore some resemblance to the darker parts 
of his own superstition; and his belief was followed 
by insult and outrage, 

■■'•'. ' — Waddington's History of the Churchy 



I dreamed I saw the tmlight Vale5 
The slumber land of quietude; 

Miere hillcws high or stormy gale. 
That tranquil place cannot intrude o 

Miere peaceful waters gently flow. 
In tuneful coursing way around; 

Vfliere light in soft subduing glow. 
Combine to peaceful sleep profound* 

Row upon row of beds of rest. 

To vfeary travelers secure; 
There ample room Trt±Lere eirery guest ^ 

No more the cares' of earth endure* "■ ■' 

There charming mixsic soft and low, 

In undertones of harmony; 
A soothing calm for those who knovf. 

This sweet melodious synphony© 

There losing Ingels watch and guard, 

iind every need anticipate; 
Their round on round in every ward, 

Incoirang travelers av/aitft 

ApA is all qtiiet peaceful rest, ' ' 

As centuries on earth unroll? 

The },:artyrs speak from east to. west; ' 
An altar cry, their Lord extoll* 

"Eow long oh Lord holy and true," 
Avenge our blood and low estate; 

Thy judging po?;er that all may view. 
And all thy justful ways relate* 

Then to the wardrobes of the sky, 

Where hang the robes of righteousness; 

The. holy angels swiftly fly, 
_And back with soothing kind caress. 

Behold these snowy robes of light. 
Are yours who suffered in distress; 

Rest while the other saints of right. 
Shall die to rise in holinessc 

The curtain drops; the thinning veil^ 
Till future day will all disclose; 

ind sleeping saints mth rapture hail. 
The dawn, and rise from deep repose* 
— tT. I, Cover 


— I JOHN— ■ 

This letter- iraa apparently -written by the sajne 
author as the Gospel of St^ eJohn^ who was a personal 
companion of Christy and one of the Twelve Apostles 
who had "heard'» "seen'' and "handled" of the "¥ord of 

His purpose for vrriting is "that your joy may be 

John declares that "God is light^ " and that his 
followers will walk in the light and have fellowsixip 
one with another,, and "the blood of Jesus Christ his 
Son cleanseth us from all sin," 

Also "God is Icove," .This seeras to be the wa^itGr.^s 
main theme. He that loveth his brother is in the 
light, but he that hateth his brother is in dartaess, 

"We love him because he first loved us." 

"Perfect love castetii out fear," *. 

If we dwell in him we keep his coirmiandments which 
are nanied in chapter 3:23; "Thtit.we should believe on 
the name of his Son Jesiis Christ, and that we should 
love one anothex^" 

Anti-clirist is spoken of in the second chapter, 
showing that he that denieth the yon also denleth the 
Father » : . 

The foui'th chapter tells, us of false prophets and 
warns us to "try the spirits," 

John bears witness to the Trinity and unity of the 
God-head: The Father, The Son, and The Holy Ghost^ 
which bear record, in heaven, and the corresponding 
v-jitness on earth: the Spirit and the water and the blood, 

">ihosoever is born, of God' over come th the world j and 
this is the ^victory that ovsrcometh the world, even 
o-ar faith," *—S,M.¥, .-.. ..."-• 


VO L. 7 D E QE mm, I9 60 MO. 12 

"Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain 
from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul." 1 Peter 2: 1 1 

Oh were it not for Jesus J hew dark 

this world would be- 
No light along its valleys, no calm 

upon its sea; 
So few the solid pleasures that 

make the bosom glad. 
So nmny miner phrases to make the 

music sad# 

Oh, were it not for Jesus I the 
joiurney would, be Icne, 

Our trials and temptations to Him 
al9ne are kno7m; 

Not e'en our best and dearest, our 
inmost heart can read, 

God only under standeth its deep un- 
spoken need, ^ 

Oh, were it not for Jesus I hww vain 

would be the fight I 
Our sins we , could not conquer without 

His power and might. 
The enemy would rout us, the foe . - 

would prove too strong; 
Through Christ alone we triumph 

and learn the Victor's song^ 

Oh, were it not for Jesus I then well 

mi^ht we despair. 
But since He lives and loves us, why 

need we carry care? 
If He be giiide and comrade, our 

, joys will not be- fe-^r. 
For ne'er the cross can crush us, 

with Him to share it tool 

.. • ^ —Selected 

THE PILGRIM is a religious magazine published monthly by Daniel F. Wolf in the 
interests of the members of The Old Brethren Church. Subscription rote: $1.50 per year. 
Sample copies sent free on request. Address: THE PILGRIM, Rt. 3, Box 1378, Modesto, Calif. 


In the 8th chapter of Romans^ the Apostle Paul says, 
"¥e are saved by hope," And in Hebrews 6^ he says^ 
", , e that we might have a strong consolation, who 
have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set 
before us: which hope we have as an anchor of the soul, 
both sure and steadfast, and which entereth into that 
within the veil; whither the forerunner is for us enter- 
ed, even Jesus, ^inade an high priest forever after the 
order of Melchisedec," 

S'rom the Genesis account of creation, it seems evid- 
ent that God intended that man should live forever in 
eternal fellowvshlp with him and all the holy being of 
his eternal habitations, because they were laade in His 
own image and likeness -and placed in the Paradise of 
Eden, which God planted for them, where also was the 
Tree of Life of which if they should" eat they would 
live forever. 

But there was also another being with supernatural 
intelligence and powers, called the serpent or devil, 
who had access to them and who had exalted aspirations, 
and a will that opposed God and his purpose for man in 
the creation, who through subtility and deceit caused 
them to disobey God's voice and sin, and thus forfeited 
their right to the Tree of Life. So death passed upon 
them and they were driven from their Paradise home, and 
the way of the 'Tree of 'Life was closed and guarded by 
an angel that they might not partak^ of- it and live 
forever in their sinfia and imperfect state. 

Miat a tragedyi v/hat a falll what an overwhelrring 
defeat and disappointment! "What sorrow indeed i From 
Paradise to a desert land where thomes and thistles 
grow, and where 'the man who was created to have domin- 
ion in the earth must now toil and till the ground for 
bread to live, only to "die and return to the ground 
from whence he was taken. Also the woman must bear 


children in sorrow^ -who, instead of being sons of God 
were now aleinated from God^ and heirs of the same 
sorrows. The first-born son became a murderer and 
the other was killed. 

Ifttoo but God could know the depths of their sorrow? 
Not only did it reach the human heart, but it also 
grieved the heart of God, for when wickedness had in- 
creased in the earth and the whole thought of the imag- 
ination of the heart of man was only evil continually, 
it "repented God that he had mad^ man and grieved him 
at his heart." ¥e believe this same sorrow reach the 
heart of our Lord Jesus Christ, for it is said that ; 
"He was a man of sorrows and acquainted with griefs" ' " 
And, '»Surely he hath born our griefs and carried our. "' 

But our title is "Gleams of Hope;" and our thought 
is that neither our first parents nor their posterity 
could have endured the crushing weight of so tragic a 
fall, had it not been for the precious promises of God 
that shed rays of hope, first in Eden, and then here - 
and there along the toilsome road of their sad history 
of four thousand years from Eden to Bethlehem on that" 
historic night when an angel of God said to the shep-"; 
herds, "Fear not, for behold, I bring you glad tidings' 
of great joy which shall be to. all people, for unto '• 
you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour^- 
which is Christ the Lord." . .^ "' . . ' V ' 

It seems important to remember that the fall .in Eden 
was caused by the "serpent" who "beguiled" or deceived; 
Eve into committing sin. And because they were DECErV- 
ED God gave them a promise of hope to sustain them 
tiirough the multiplied sorrows which they and their 
posterity were now become heir to. It is noticabie 
here that no word of hope was given to the serpent who 
deceived them. But it was said that the "seed" of the' 
woman would bruise the serpent As head. This gave them 
hope in that it proraised ' that there would be a "seed" 
or posterity which would ultimately be victorious 
over the serpent, but in so doing would also receive 
a wound. 

How wonder ftilly hopeful this promise was to Eve. 


Apparently, when Cain was born, she thought he was the 
Deliverer, but, instead^ he became a murderer. I*tat 
a sorrowful disappointment] but she never lost hope 
in the promise, because when Seth was born, probably 
about one hundred years later, she said, "God hath 
appointed me another "seed" instead of Abel whom Cain 
slew. " 

Enoch vjas born 622 years after creation and lived 
365 years on the earth. It was said of him that he 
"walked with God, and he was not; for God took him." 
He left this earth about 67O years before the flood, 
but already in his time the wickedness of men had pro- 
gressed to a fearful state, and he prophesied that they 
would be destroyed and God^s plan for the Creation 
would be victorious. His prophecies must have brought 
a gleam of hope in a worla that then was lost in sin 
and impending doom. No doubt it was a sustaining power 
to his sonMethuselaJri and grandson Lemech who was the 
father of Woah. For when Woah was born only 69 years 
after Enoch left this earth, there Vvas great expecta-- 
tion of a restoration from the fall and curse that 
occurred in Eden, because they said, "This same shall 
comfort us concerning our work and toil of hands, 
because of the ground which the Lord hath cursed." 

Noah lived another !?00 years xAile wickedness in- 
creased and matured to a point where it could not be 
tolerated any longer. It must have been a terrible 
time, for it is said that "all flesh had corrupted 
his v/ay upon the ear'i±i," and "the earth was filled 
with violence." And God said he would bring a flood 
of waters and destroy man and all living things from 
off the earth. 

This was probably the darkest time in the history 
of the world, but in the midst of these evil portends 
Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord, and it was 
said of him that he was a just man and perfect in his 
generation, and Noah walked with God. probably things 
never looked more hopeless. But God commMded Noah to 
build an ARK to save himself and his faraily and a seed 
of all living things in the earth, and promised to es- 
tablish his covenant with him (the one made in Eden). 


After the f locd^ God gave them the Rainbow as a bright 
sign of hope that while the earth remains its fruitful 
seasons will continue^ to sustain both mankind and 
animal life upon it. 

Some liOO years later ^ when it appeared that the 
world was hopelessly lost in idolatry and estranged 
from God^ God called Abraham to separate himself from 
his country and kindred and promised that he would be 
the father of a great nation, and of a certain "seed^^ 
or person through whom all the nations of the earth 
would receive a blessing. And through whom, by a 
Spiritual birth, there would be an innumerable seed 
that would be the children of God, 

I^nny years later, when the promise that he would be 
a great nation was fulfilled, and God was leading them 
to the promised land by the hand of Moses, and. they were 
disobedient and broke God»s covenant at mount Sinai, 
they forfeited their right to the promises and would 
have been destroyed had not Moses interceeded for them . 
and became their mediator. They were afraid of God at 
that time and despaired of ther lives, but God told 
Moses to tell them that He woiild raise them up a Prophet 
of their brethren like Moses, and him they should hear 
and obey. This gave them hope that they would be saved 
from their sins and have a victorious future. We know 
now that that Prophet was Christ, the same '»seed" that 
was spoken of in Eden^ and promised in Abraham. 

When the kingdom of Israel began to decline and fall 
because of diobedience and idolatry, after it_,had reach- 
ed i;bs height in King David, God sent many prophets to 
warn- them of impeiading judgments if they did not turn 
from their evil ways, but at the same time gave them 
many bright gleams of hope of a victorious future in 
a coming Saviour and reigning King who would save them 
from their sins, raise them from the dead, abolish death, 
and become king over the whole earth and reign forever. 

When the' carnal dynasty of King David had fallen, 
and Israel was in captivity in foreign lands, and it 
looked like there was no more hope for the "kingdom," 
God gave them; Daniel to tell them that at a set time 
after their return from the captivity, the God of 


heaven would set up an everlasting kingdom whieh" would 
subdue all other kingdoms, and the "saints" would poss- 
ess the kingdom forever and ever, Ezekiel also gave 
them the vision of the ^^valley of dry bones" to sustain 
them when they said that their HOPE was lost. 

After Israel returned to their own land after th^"- 
captivity, they soon returned to many of their former 
sins, and judgment was again pending, God gave thein the 
prophet Malachi'to warn them to turn from their evil' • 
ways J and at tJife same time promised the forerunner of ' 
the Messiah';. who i*/ould turn them again to God, or else 
He would come and "smite the earth with a curse." 

This promise was otie more gleam of hope^ added to 
the many of the past ages, which gave them strength to 
endure _ the intervening J4.OO' years of calamitous history 
from then until Christ came. 

Thus all the Old Testament Scriptures, from Eden to 
Bethlehem, pointed to Christ as the Saviour of the world. 
And in the darkest' m.oments of the history of mankind, 
when the creation itself was "threatened with extinction, 
or the people of God were threatened with remov^ from 
God^s favor, these promises of solvation and restoration, 
were tendered- to the fallen children of Adam to give 
them hope in a victorious future, and give them courage 
to live and witness for God in their time, and thus ' 
preserve life and hope until the Redeemer came. 

.When Christ, therefore came ^ and John ihe Baptist " 
looked on him as he began his ministry, he said, "Be- 
' hold the Lamb; of Go'd which taketh away the sin of the'' 
World." And Jesus himself 'began to preach and to- say, 
"The time is fulfilled, 'ahd the kingdom of heaven is^ 
at hand. Repent therefore and believe the gospel," 
And,^ "I am the way, the truth, and the lifei and no 
man Cometh to the Father but by me." "I am the resurr- 
ection and the life: he that believeth -in me, though 
"he were dead, yet shall he live." 

"And many other signs truly did Jesus in the presence 
of his disciples, which are not written in this bock: 
but these are wi^itten that ye might believe that Jesus 
is th^ Christ, the Son of Godj and that believing ye 
might have life through his name* — D.F.W, 

-THE PILGRm 2k7 

by J, I. Cover 

"But this MN^ because he continueth ever, hath an 
unchangeable priesthood. Wherefore he is able to save 
them to the uttermost that come iinto God by him, seeing 
he ever liveth to make intercession for them**^ Heb.» 7 s 

The priest of the imchaigealile priesthood is Jesus 
who ever liveth to make Intercession for THEM, who is 

Uttermost Salvation is a f3.ct and comfort "to all 
thera that obey him" and have the prcmse of eternal 
salvaticno Heb, 5-9» 

Uttermost Salvation or being saved to the uttermost 
is a wonderful promise aiid power of Jesusj tliat brings 
joy to weary hearts and comfort; that brings trust and 
confidence in o^esus to bestow the choicest and most 
needi'ul Dlessings, Sui'^ely uttermost salvation is desir- 
able, wonderful and can be bestowed upon man] 

Vfe have noticed that uttermost salvation is confined 
to a certain class, — those who come iHito God by Jesus, 

we understand the choicest eternal blessings are 
given by grace through faith, (Eph. 2:8) showing the 
etez'nal redemption obtained througn Jesus, (Heb. 
11:6), made available and effective to those who believe; 
through the God-given principle of faith that pleases 
God, (Heb. 11:6; and is answer to his grace bestox-fed 
upon his people, (II Cor. 11:6), 

Uttermost Salvation then is the full benefits of 
God»s divine grace made available even in this life, to 
sustain and deliver in extreme and dire need; as we read: 
"My little children these things write I unto you that 
ye sin not; and if snj man sin we have an advocate with 
the Father, Jesus Christ the reighteous." I John 2:1, 
les, "he ever liveth to make intercession for them"— 
Those who believe that God is "And that he is a rewarder 
of them that dilligently seek him," The great reward 
is Uttermost Salvation, 


Then let me impress this message upon all who read: 
Uttermost Salvation is not given promiscuously, but 
upon condition that we come to God by Jesus Christ our 
Lord, St, John lU:6, ■■ 

Uttermost. Salvation, 

■ Oh, the joyful sound; ' ' •. . 
Free to every nation, 
• ■ vJhere the truth is found. • 

Christ our risen Saviour ,. . 

Helps in time of need; 
May we seek his favor,,' 

Follow, let him lead. ': 

Uttermost Salvation, 

Ever present aid; 
Feeding holy ration,' 

l#iere oi^r hope is stayed* 

Going, on to glory, • • ./ 

On the narrow way; .. . 

.. Hear the sacred story; 

Aiding- nigiit and day.- 

• . . Uttermost Salvation, 

At oxjoc journeys end; 
After tribulation. 

Near our dearest friend^ 

Waking in his brightness. 

See him face to face; 
Walking in his rightness, 

Being saved by grace. 

■ Uttermost Salvation, 

" • ■ •'..-• Evermore to be. 

Free from all temptation; 
Live eternally. 

— Sonora, California 
Next 5 Everlasting Destruction. 



TEXT: Luke 18:8, "When the Son of man cometh, 
shall he find faith on the earth?" 

Where are we? Are we worshiping the Lord in the 
"Catacombs" or sitting in the "Colosseums"? A catacomb 
is a secret place under the grotmd* A Colosseum is a 
large building or structure for public entertainments 
or athletic contests. It is a Roman amphitheater.. 

A recent magazine article carries a picture of the 
^cient collosseum of Rome and speaks of it as the 
place "where early Christians died for a faith the 
world novi takes for granted," • ; ■ 

However much we take our faith for granted now, it 
certainly was not a matter of course in that day. 
That amphitheater, still a show-place in modern Rome, 
was built by Jewish slaves* The outside walls cost 
more than fifty million dollars. It seated no less 
than f if ty . thousand people. In its arenas wild beasts 
fought for public entertainment. One thousand animals 
were slain there on an emperor's birthday. Hundreds 
of Christians died there for the faith the' world and 
the professed Christian world now takes- for granted, 
the faith that the world now mocks mth t insel, holly 
wreaths, ai^tifical lights and gifts that are an abomi- 
nation in the sight of the Lord. Many claim the spirit 
of Christmas is in the bottle, liquor or some other 
abord.nable thing. 

If we had sat in those grandst^ands, we might have 
been deceived. "For it was not the howling mob in the 
Colosseum. that determined the coisrse of history. Under- 
ground in the catacombs another force was working. A 
handful of men and woBien vxho wor shopped another King 
.called "Jesus," who had died and risen, and was coming 
back some day— hex^e was the beginning of an eir5)ire mth- 
in an empire, the Christian beneath the Caesars. They 
crept along the passageways and tunnels, among the 
tombs and caverns, hunted and persecuted^ "the scum of 
the earth." If we had prowled around in these gloomy 
depths we might have come on little companies singing. 


listening to a Gospel message^ observing the Lord's 
Supper, We might have said,, "They haven't a chance •" 
But the Christians underground eventually upset the 
Caesars above ground. The Catacombs overcame the Colo- 
sseums and finally put the amphitheater out of business* 

Many today are being -deceived by the colcsseum wor- 
shippers^ but they will not change the co'urse of his- 
tory today either. There is a handful of people here 
and there in the world who are taking the old-fashioned 
Bible way, worshipping the "King of kings and Lord of 
lords" who IS and WILL change the course of history, 
riany of the up and up in the professed Cliristian world 
look on and say they don't have a chance, but it was 
the catacomb' worshippers who upset the colosseum .and 
Caesar worshippers ♦ 

There is something fascinating about these saints of 
the catacombs ♦ We cannot forget this fellowship of 
simple believers who loved Jesus Christ more than their 
lives and tlieir prestige in the xforld (but not of the 
world), whose blood was the seed of the chux-ch. They 
were strangers seeking another country. They dwell on 
earth but are citizens of heaven. They obey the laws 
that men make, 'but their lives are better than the Laws. 
They love all men, butare persecuted by all. 

These saints of Crod's underground viere on fire with 
a passion which sworas co"ul-d not kill nor water di^own 
nor fire destroy. Their blood was spilled so freely in 
the arena that a traveler was asked, "Do you want a re 
relic? Ta^:e a handful of sand from the colosseum. It 
is all saturated x^ martyrs' blood." 

Here was a minority group in a pagan land, but, like 
m.any minority groups before and after, they changed the 
course of history. Today the professing c torch has 
grown rich and increased with goods and needs nothing. 
The faith is now taken for granted. 

Many are a pretty comfortable crowd of professed 
Christians, who seem to forget that for them the gospel 
is not something to come to church to hear, but some- 
thing to go from -church to tell. The cause of Christ 
is not carried forward by Sunday morning bench-warmers 

THE PILGRgl 251 

who come in to sit but never go out to serve. The worst 
of it is, many have moved from the arena into the grand- 
stand, from the catacombs into the Colosseum* 

Certainly many have caught the spirt of the Colosseum. 
One would think today that professed Christians had 
never heard those Scriptures, "Be not conformed to this 
world, but be ye transformed, " "Whosoever therefore will 
be a friend of the world is the enemY of God," "If any 
man love the x^rorld, the love of the Father is not in 

Campbell Morgan said, "we Christians are not to catch 
the spirt of the age but to condemn it, and, so far as 
we may, correct it." But churches are filled with 
worldlings. They sit in the choirs, teach classes, 
hold offices. They are affiliated with all the unfruit- 
fxil works of darkness and never reprove them. If their 
hypocrisy is pointed out, they adopt the "hush-hush" of 
misusing the admonition, "Judge not that ye be not jud- 
ged," (only another device of the devil) to shut our 
mouths while the church moves into the colosseiam. It - 
would pay this "hush-hush" group to read the Scripture 
before and after "Judge not that ye be not judged" and 
also x*ead all the cor/imentaries pertaining to this Scrip- 
ture. I am sure if they did, they would never want to 
hide behind it again. I have long ago ceased to be- /^ 
disturbed by these sensitive souls who howl when the 
sword of the. Spirit opens i:^ their piis-pockets of iniq«i- 

Living in Rome^ many are tempted, as never before, to 
do as iiome does, l^ten the church moves from persecution 
to popularity, from the arena into the grandstand, the 
gospel-fire died down until God starts another minority 
underground. . The church languishes when her members 
wear medals in the grandstand; she prospers when they 
wear scars in the arena. Be not deceived: a lot of 
people think the world is becoming more Christian, but 
the professed Christians are becoming more worldly. 
Friend, if you hang around Rome, and you don't have the 
goods, it won't be long until you will do like Borne is 

lyiany are over come with the showmanship of the colo- 


Tsoiom. The time has come when sound doctrine cannot 
be endxrred and^ somehow^ many have fallen for the not- 
ion that the church must compete with the world by- 
entering the' entertainment business. It is ridiculous 
to begin with, for they can't begin to match the clev- 
erness of this age by running third-rate a,musements. 
It is an admission of failui^e when we resort to numer- 
ous devices of music, movies, magic, and monkeyshines 
to fill the pews. Even so-called revivals have turned 
into entertainments, rather than old-fashioned soul- 
bui^en on the saints, for the lost. No Hell -fire 
judgment preaching anymore, God ordained that men sh 
should be won by the foolishness of preaching, VGien 
preaching fails, there is no substitute. 

We are running a lifeboat and not a ^'show-boat,'* 
But this is the age of the colosseum and many professed 
Cliristians^ thirlc they must stage a glorified circus to 
keep step vjith these days of super -duper glamour ^^ 

It is the day of the spectator, Rome sat in the 
grandstand, America is a nation of on-lookers today. 
Thousands upon thousanus, yea millions, sit at football 
stadiums and baseball diam.onds and horse races and car 
races, and State Fairs, watching man and beast strive 
for mastery. Then they go to the theater, or move the 
theater (T.V. ) in their home to be entertained again. 
Some of- them go to church on Sunday and again they are 
spectators, not participants, and the preacher is ex- 
pected to perform for their enjoyment. They go horae 
with no more intention of practicing the sermon than 
they take seriously what they saw in the theater or 
on the T.V, It is all unreal, "Spectators," whether 
in the amphitheater or at church, nothing but a flabby 
generation of comfortable on-lookers. For the chvu^ch 
it spells decay. "I enjoyed the sermon" may be a sad 
index to the state of both pulpit and pew,. At this 
Christmas tim.e thousands will be spectators at church 
on Christmas to watch plays that mock our Blessed Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ, Some mil even put on so- 
called Ciiristian movies at Christmas titae, as well as 
at other times, placing the Hollywood gang before the 
people trying to portray holiness and purity with a 


group of sin-loving^ lustfiil, ungodly^ fornicators^ 
adiolterers and ad ul tresses from Holl^TftTood, There is 
no Christian movie^ never was and never will be. 

The church has naoved from the catacombs to the colo- 
sseiim in its emphasis size. Many stage mammoth demon- 
strations and gigantic convocations, mass salvation, 
by hand -raising, Ccird-signing, church-joining, and 
mass liealing campaigns* Siome put celebrities on the 
platform such as mayors, governors, and others and 
borrow from Caesar to try to lift the banner of Christ, 
Multitudes have gone crazy over "bigness," Failing in 
the Spirit trying to impress men with size, as though 
strength lay in statistics. Mien, the patient is very 
ill cxd the doctors hold a consultation, it does not 
mean only that the patient is up against it; it may 
mean that the doctors are up against it. In most Holi- 
ness churches tqday, you can not tell who is the sick- 
est, the Doctor or patient, Eemember the best defens- 
ive is an ofiensiveo The saints of the catacombs did 
not r:it in huddles and draw up resolutions, pull wires, 
and scratch each other ^s back for ch:urch politics. 
They believed, lived, and preached the gospel in the 
power of God, and empire gave way before them. 

Actually'- what we need today is a thinning instead 
of a. thickening. We need to reduce the qiiantity to 
improve the quality, Gideon had to thin his troops, 
and a similar procedixre would help the cnurch today to 
prepare God's army, Jesus thinned His crowd, many belie- 
ved in them as recorded in the si^cth chapter of John. 

Real Chjristians, are still a minority in a pagan 
land right here in America, Me need to lay aside the 
spirit of the world, shovrmanship and size and return 
to the offense of the cross, hen are not im.pressed 
from the colosseum but from the catacomt^s, "l/fcen the 
Son of Man com.eth, shall he find faith on earth?" At 
this Chj-iptmas time, let us return again to CHRIST^ 

Herald of. Truth, December, 1957# 



"Know ye not, bretliren, (for I spe^ to them that 
know the law,) how that the law hath dominion over a 
man as long as he liveth" (Rom* 7sl)? 

It seems that there are miiltitudes of ' ^'^seventh chap- 
ter of Romans" Christians in the churches, that are 
well contented with themselves, because Paul expressed 
himself in this chapter as one who wishes to do right, 
but does it not. We are conscious of the fact that 
such are not free from the law, and are greatly in need 
of enlightenment. 

This first verse in Romans 7 reminds us that if we 
are "dead to the law" (v , k) t then we are newborn crea- 
tures; "the body of sin* . ^destroyed, " and are not 
serving sin; "d.ead" and "free from sin»" 

Perhaps this is strange language to many that have 
been filling the church benches for many years. But, 
let us look deeper into this chapter. In the second 
and third verses we see the picture; as long as the 
husband is not dead, the \Afe is bound unto him and can 
not marry a second husband. The application is: as 
long as the law is not dead in us we are under the 
curse (Gal, 3*10, 13) i it has dominion or power over 
us, and we ax*e not "in newxiess of spirit" but still "in 
the oldn.ess of the letter" (v, 6), Only when the law, 
or sinful old nature, is dead, are we free to marry 
the second husband (Christ) the same as the woman: 
"she is loosed from the law of her husband." 

We adjriit this "free from sin" religion does not 
digest iffith the Romans 7 Christians, But, it is to me 
a picture of an awalcened sJJiner struggling hopelessly 
against inward corruption in. his own strength by the 
law. It is our cap.did belief that, in this chapter, 
Paul was giving his experiences on the Damascus road, 
before his "SON-stroke" and not after. In other x^ords, 
he was still a Saul iinder the law; yea, under sin. Let 
us look intjD Romans 6, and notice how the apostle is , 
admonishing us to a life "free from sin," In fact, he 
is very emphatically saying in verse 7: "for he that is 


dead IS freed from sin." 

No need for a shadow of a doubt^ for the Word says 
so. Again, if Romans 7 would apply to Paxil's converted 
life after the law was dead in him and married to Christ 
(the second husband) it would conflict with his example, 
which he lived and told others to live, Paul was not 
living a life (after conversion) "wishing" to do good 
but instead is "doing evil," Again, some will point to 
I Tim, 1:15^ where Pa^ol speaks of himself being "the 
chief of sinners "5 but most certainlj^ it only applies. 
to his life before conversion and not after. How could 
he say with such a testimony from him as a chief sinner: 
"Be ye followers of me, even as I also- am of Christ" 
(I Cor, 11:1)? ' ' ' ■ 

Beloved, as long as we are in Romans seven, we need 
an awakening, like vSaul had on approaching Damascus: 
"0 T^etched man that I ami who shall deliver mxe from 
the body of this death?" Saul found deliverance— the 
Lord Jesus— "Lord, what vrilt thou have me to do?" The 
Lord told him. Notice how quickly Sa^algot out of the 
seventh chapter of Roiaans, 

Again, our Romans 7 Christian will tell, you that 
pomewhere in the Bible it says something like this: 
"If we say that /we have no sin (have not sinned), we 
deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us'^ (I John . 
l:8).o First, let us notice again in .iioirians 3 wheire 
Paul 'gives a genuine picture of the corrupted 'naxure 
of man mthout Christ, In verse 23 we read: "For all., 
have sinned, and come short of the glory of God," Hence, 
no man can say he hath no sin, or hath not sinned, for 
"all have, , , ," But since God fulfilled His promise 
and made the atonement through His Son, by the blood, 
and after man becomes convicted of sin and confesses 
and becomes converted, meets the conditions of Romans 
6, becoming dead to the law of sin and being servants 
of righteousness and true holiness, we could not con- 
ceive the idea that Paul or John would provoke the 
thought that such a newborn creature is still a sinnerj 
or 'borrmiitting sin every day," as some put it, 

'Let us also notice I John 1:7^ "But if we walk in 
the light (not in darkness), as he is in the light, we 


have fellowship one with another, and the blood of 
Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin." Also 
in verse 9^ he who confesses his sins received forgive- 
ness, and is cleansed from all unrighteousness. The 
psalmist says; '*As far as the east is from the west, so 
far hath he removed our transgressions from us" (Ps» 
103:12) and the prophet also says: "All his transgress- 
ions ♦ , .shall not me mentioned -unto him, ♦ ,"(Esek, 

Can we grasp the truth of these verses? I John l:?^ 
9 applies to a converted life, and verses 8 and 10, We 
have many self-righteous persons (perhaps even church 
members) -that feel they need no Savious as. they have 
never sinned. Again to make it plain, the standard of 
a Christian life is found in verses 7 ^tnd '9^ and excep- 
tion in verses 8 and 10. Again vfe repeat, the beloved 
Apostle John vK>uld not write a letter contradicting his 
own words by telling in one verse of the "sinless life" 
and -in the very next verse telling of the "sinful life" 
applying to the sai'ie person at the same tiiae. In I John 
3:8 he says: "He that committeth sin is of the devil 
..." How does this apply to the Christian's. life? 
Then the next verse follows: "whosoever is born of God 
doth not commit sin; for his seed remaineth in himj and 
he cannot (practice) sin, becaiise he is born of God," 
■Is he contradicting himself in these. two verses? No, 
because he^is speaking of a different life. True, very 
true, the Bible gives plenty of allowance for our short- 
comings and mistakes, but not t6T our willfia sinning/, 
against better knowledge, ^ "'* 

Vfe conclude thao fiomans 7 is dealing with the sinner 
who is under conviction and has a feeling of doing 
better, but since he is clinging to his old desires of 
nature is struggling hopelessly without forgiveness of 
sins, EYen church membership or baptism does not bring 
him salvation. Saul was aealous and loved the law, but 
possessed no grace or power to live the overcoming life 
until he was obedient to the heavenly vision. He'^step-. 
ped out of the seventh into the eighth chapter of Romans 
where he could speak out with joy: "There is therefore 


NOW no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, 
who walk not after the flesh, but after the' Spirit, 
For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath 
made me free from the law of sin and death." 

Fellow Christians, we must also step out from the ■ 
law, of sin and death. Then, and then only, have \4e the 
promise of eternal life » .' . ' 

Gospel Herald, Harch, 19^1 


, Shall I make my child go to Sundy School and church? 
lesi And with no fiirther discussion about the matter. 
Startled? Why? How do you answer Junior when he comes 
to breakfast on Monday morning and announces to you 
that he is not going to school any more? lou knowl 
Jiinior goes. How do you answer when Junior comes in 
very much besmudged and says "I'm not going to take a 
bath,^* Junior bathes, doesn't .he? 

lAlhy all this timidity then, in the realm of his 
Spiritual guidance, and growth? Going, to let him wait 
and decide what church he'll go to when he's old enough? 
Quit your kidding | You didn't wait until you were old 
enough! You don't wait until he's old enough to decide 
whether he wants to go to school or not— to start his 
education. You don't wait until he's old enough. to de- 
cide whether he wishes to be clean or dirty, do you? 
Do you wait until he's old enough to decide if he wants 
to talie his medecine when he is sich? Do you? 

What sh-ali we say when Junior announces he doesn't 
like to go to Sunday School and Church? That's an easy 
dne to answer. Just be consistent. Tell him "Junior, 
in our house we all go to church and Sunday School and 
that includes you," Your firmness and example will 
fui'nish the bridge over which youthful rebellion may 
travel into rich and satisfying experiences in personal 
religious living. 

The parents of Araerica can strike a telling blow 
against the forces which contributed to our juvenile 
delinquency, if our mothers and fathers will take their 
children to Sunday School and Church regularly. 

— J, Edgar Hoover 

2^8 • . THE PILGRIM 


Recently I read a book on the life of our pioneer 
mothers and their hardships • One thing that impressed 
me was their hospitality one to another and how they 
shared what meager supplies they had» With all our 
modern conveniences, it seems we have less time to show 

¥e have always enjoyed having company in our home 
;and have received many blessings from this fellovfship* 
However, until I learned the first steps of this fellow- 
ship, I did not enjoy it as I do now« Vflien I was first 
married, I thought, before having company to dinnex*, 
everything had to be "just so/^ and therefore I exhaust- 
ed myself to the extent that when the company left it 
was rather a relief to settle down to normal again* 
Thus I dia not fxilly enjoy the visits with the friends 
as I wanted to. But as time went on, and our family of 
eight children arrived in close succession, I began to 
see things differently. Now I find we have wonderful 
times togetluer with our friends in just preparing a 
good, well-balanced meal and being "ourselves*" Good 
table manners are a MST in our Christian home, and 
certainly the house should be neat and clean, .but this 
does not ask for anything expensive, just good judgment 
and of course work, and every member of the family can 

Eating on a nice clean oilcloth with inexpensive 
table service and having the food well cooked and seas- 
oned will develop just as good and healthy bodies as 
elaborate meals and fiornishings. The table should be 
set neatly. Perhaps a bouquet of flowers that are in 
season can be an asset too* 

We find people respond and join in good fellowship 
under these conditions. VJhat good times we have had 
with friends when X'^e have been invited as guests and 
guests have come to our house, and we all feel at home 
with on^ another. 

-And' how wonderful when we all will be together in 
heaven at the marriage supper of the Lamb, with the 
born-again ones and those who love the Lord,— Selected 




The notorious malevolence of the Jews, did not pre-,j 
vent the prevalence . of another very early and very, in-*- 
jurious opinion respecting Christianity— that it >ias- 
merely a form^ and a rejected form^ of Judaism,, This- 
■•KTas a natural error— since the religion proceeded- from 
Judaea, and many among its original preachers,,, and all 
its most active enemies were Jews— it was indeed gpradu- 
ally,. though slowly, removed t^ the writings of-the. •■• 
eai^ly fathers, and the progress of the faith; but the; 
prejudice arising, from it was the chief cause of that ■ 
contempt with which the worship wa$ regarded for above 
one hundred years both by philosophers and statesraen. ■ 

Again,- in the scenes of public festivity, in the -; ; 
temples, and at, the sacrifices of the gods, the Christ- 
ian was never present; ha pai'took not in triumphs and 
rejoicings of which -religion formed any portion, and ■. 
appeared not at the -sports of,, the amphitheatre, except 
as a victim, 'ihis seclusion from the amusements of 
his fellow-countrymen was mistaken for indifference to 
the happiness and interests of his country; it was mis- 
taken disaffection to the. government, for moroseness 
or misanthropy; its real motive, was never-estimated or 
even conceived; for the careless te.mper of polytheisxa; 
was unable. to comprehend an. .exclusive religion, or to,, 
imderstand..iihy the worship, of Jupiter was not consistent 
with that of Christ, Another difficulty was created ... 
by the spiritual nature of our religion. It was in 
vain that the Roman magistrate, inquired for the images 
and statues, of the God ox the Christians, for the altars 
and temples consecrated to him. Unwilling-, or unable, 
to believe tliat an Invisible Being could be the" immedi- 
ate object of adoration, he pronounced that to be athe- 
ism, which differed so widely from the general appear- 
ance of theism; and thus, among the ignorant at least, 
the Christians were liable to the double imputation, 


not only that they repudiateci the national divinities, 
but that they substituted none other in their place. 
It was probably this last charge which inflamed and 
envenomed the rest; for the same moral enormities 
which were pardonable in the devotee of Apollo, became . 
infamous in those who partook of no devotion, and the 
worshippers of every idol under heaven united their 
clamors against the impiety of the atheists; and un- 
happily, among the impassioned natives of the East, 
clamors are seldom unattended by violence, and violence 
is only satisfied with blood. 

There is, perhaps, no characteristic by which Christ- 
ianity was so early and so strongly distinguished, as 
the pious horror of every approach to idolatry; this 
singularity would be more commonly forced on th.e , at- 
tention of pagans than any other, and no doubt, .in the 
opinion of the vast majority mth whom the image was 
in fact the object of worship, it would be sufficient 
alone to constitute irreligion. Again, it led them 
into a second and. scarcely less dangerous imputation, 
that of disloyalty; since the image of the emperor, 
which was usually exalted among the standards and in 
public places, was not honored by the devout salutation 
of the Christian; and this omission naturally gave pre- 
text to a POLITICAL charge. 

As another cause of the early unpopularity of the 
Christians, we may mention the unceasing opposition 
of all whose personal interests were concerned in the 
support of paganism. The magnificent temples and- gor- 
geous ceremonies of that superstition were a soiirce of 
unfailing profit, not only to a numerouse race of 
priests and hierodules, of architects and statuaries, 
but to multitudes of citizens, x^rho lived, like the 
craftsmen of Ephesus, on the treasury of the temple, 
and were engaged by their most immediate necessities 
to maintain the worship; and not thiese only, but the 
whole mass of the populace, were in some degree gainers 
by the sacrificial profusion which distinguished their 
religion; to say nothing of the share which they took 
in those splendid processions and rites, which converted 
the practice of religion into mere sensual enjoyment 


and careless festivity. VJhen^ in the place of this 
pompous pageantry, it was proposed to substitute a 
simple spiritual worship, recommended, not by the dis- 
play of external ceremony, which it scorned, but by 
inward purity and the sanctity of moral excellence, 
in opposition at the same time to the passions of all 
men, and to the immediate interests of many, it would 
have been strange indeed if the popular voice had not 
been raised against it* 

To the many causes of excitement already -mentioned 
we may add one more— the substantial motive of avarice; 
since we invariably find that the Christians, vjho were 
the objects of these popular commotions, susta.ined, 
among other injuries, the loss of their property. And 
we must not forget that, in many instances, ^ the Roman 
police tolerated, perhaps encouraged, excesses which 
it might possibly consider as an innocent exercise of 
popular feeling, or as a part of a religious ceremony. 

The evils which we have here noticed, or at least,' 
the causes which produced: them, were most prevalent 
in the earliest age of the religion, and seem gradually 
to have died away during tlie third century. For they 
were chiefly founded in ignorance of the real principles 
of Christianity, aided by contempt for the weakness 
of its professors; circuiristances which were gradually 
removed as the members of the Church advanced in num- 
bers and its ministers in leai^ning. But this progress 
of the faith (as we have hao. occasion to observe) did 
not imraediately reconcile or disarm, its adversaries, 
but rather changed their chai-^acter and their weapons. 
For instance, during the first ages we do not observe 
that the pagan priesthood were distinguished by any - 
systematic exertions against the new worship, and- they 
may possibly have despised and overlooked it; but pre- 
sently their seeming indifference was changed into 
suspicious jealousy, and then into active and persever- 
ing hatred; and we may be assured that the influence 
which they possessed over the people (whatsoever that 
may have been) were exerted to the prejudice of the 
rival religion. In the next place, philosophy descend- 
ed from the contempt with which she had professedly 


viewed the earliest efforts of Christianity, and pro- 
ceeded to distinguish it from all other 'superstitions^ 
by her rnalice and enmity; and she knew not in so doing 
how honorable a distinction she had conferred on it» 
This' coalition of philosophy with paganism, though- 
strange, was not lonnaturalj nor would any evil conse- 
quences have followed it, had it not engaged the con- 
currence, and advanced under the banners, of civil 
authority* And if it be true th^t from her numerous 
chastisements and inflictions our religion may have 
somewhat profited in purity^ we must admit that she 
learnt one hateful lesson in the school of adversity, 
which in after ages she did not forget to practice j 
it was deeply ingrafted' on her irJ^ancy by her suffer- 
ings, and it brought forth in her maturity the bitter 
fruits of crime and miser y» However, ^the poisonous 
plant was not the native of her own vineyard, and it 
is now, for the most part, rooted up and cast awayj ■ 
and she accomts. it the severest §mcng the wrongs of 
her pagan oppressors that tiiey instructed her in the • 
maxims, and accustomed her to the spectacle, of perse- 

— Waddington » s History of the Church. 


A British gentleman was converted. He loved his 
newly found Lord very much. He was not x^ell taught in 
the Scriptures, hox'fever. He thought he could continue 
in some of his worldly engagements and still be a good 
testiraony. Upon arriving at a worldly function one 
night, he was greeted thus by a friend: "I am so glad 
to see you, and to know that it isn't true." Contunued 
the friend, "Miy, rumors were around that you had been 
converted, I'm so glad you're here, and to know that 
the r™or was unfounded," "BUT IT IS TRUEi" the dum- 
founded man ejaculated. Hesitating for a moment, he 
added, "I see that you think this party is no place 
for a Christian to be. And you are right. You will 
never see me again at such an affair, nor will anyone 
else J" — ^Selected 


It came upon the midnight clear, 

That glorious song of old, 
From angels bending near the earth. 

To touch their harps of gold: 
Peace on the earth, good will to men, 

From heaven's all gracious King 5 
The world in solemn stillness lay 

To hear the angels sing. 

Still through the cloven skies they come, 

■' VJith peaceful wings unfurled; 

And still their heavenly music floats 

O'er all the weary world: 
Above its sad and lowly plains 

They bend on hovering wing. 
And o^er its Babel sounds 

The blessed angels sing. 

ye, beneath lifo's crushing load, 

"Whose forms are bending low, 
Mio toil along the climbing imj 

With painful steps and slow! 
Look now, for glad and golden hours 

Come sx^riftly on the wing: 
rest beside the weary road, " ■ 

And hear the angels sing* ' ■ • =^ ■ ... 

For lol the days are hastening.^on^ ^^ ■ '. 

By prophets seen of old, '"'.^ ■' '-■'■ 
IfJhen with the evercircling years, '■ • 

Shall come the time foretold^ 
Irfhen the new heaven and earth-shall omi - 

The Prince of Peace their King, 
And the whole world send back the song 

Which now the angels sing. ■ • 

— Edmund H. Sears, I8I4.6 

26U ' THE . PlLGRBl 

^11 JOHN— 

This second epistle of the Apostle John^ written 
about 90 A.I3. is xmlike the first epistle in that it 
is a personal letter not specifically intended to be 
r^ead publicly in the churches. It is not certain if 
it is addressed to an individual or to a particular 
church. It seeins reasonable to us that the "elect lady" 
was a certain chxirch and her children were its members* 
Apparently there vjere individuals trying to deceive this 
church into believing that Christ did not come in the 
flesh and warned them that this teaching was by the 
spirit of anti-Christ an.d that by bidding them God's 
speedy or wishing ,them God's blessing they would be 
partakers of their evil deeds. The advice given by 
the beloved Apostle John is just as important today 
as it was then: 

"And now I beseech thee, lady, net as. though I 
wrote a new commandment- unto thee, but that which 
we had from the beginning, .that we love one another," 

"And this is love, that we walk after his command- 
monts. This is the commandment, that as ye ba\^e 
heard from the begiaiaing, ye .should walk in it." 

"Look to ycLa-^selves, that we lose not those things 
which we have wrought, but that we receive a fiill 

"V/hosoever transgresseth, and abide th not in the 
doctrine of Christ, .hath not God. He that, abideth in 
the doctrine of Christ, he hath both the Father and 
the Son»" -.. 

Molvin Coning 
Goshen, Indiana